Firuzi, Lacanna, Petrucci, Marrosu, and Saso (2005) indicated tha

Firuzi, Lacanna, Petrucci, Marrosu, and Saso (2005) indicated that the o-dihydroxy structure in the B ring, the 2,3-double bond and the 3-hydroxy group in the C ring, contribute to antioxidant activity. Flavonoids also showed significant (p < 0.01) correlation with phloridzin contents (data not shown) in the methanolic extracts (r = 0.90), which agrees with the fact that this compound can be extracted to a greater extent by using methanol. For the extracts obtained with acetone solution, the total phenolic compounds had significant (p ⩽ 0.05) positive correlation with flavonoids (r = 0.52) and consequently with catechin (r = 0.82), epicatechin (r = 0.74),

procyanidins B1 (r = 0.84) and B2 (r = 0.81) (data not shown), which are the major representatives of this class. The antioxidant capacity of these extracts did not 5-Fluoracil supplier show significant (p ⩾ 0.05) correlation with total phenolic compounds probably due to the fact that some phenolics, extracted with acetone may display low activity with DPPH and FRAP reagents. However, among the individual phenolics analysed, only chlorogenic acid andquercetin-3-O-rutinosidedid not

show significant (p ⩾ 0.05) correlation with antioxidant capacity by DPPH assay. Chlorogenic acid ABT-888 in vitro has very low activity in FRAP assay, as demonstrated by Tsao et al. (2005). This could explain the fact that it did not have a correlation with antioxidant capacity in extraction by methanol or acetone. Other studies have revealed that methanolic solutions are more effective for catechin extraction (Escribano-Bailón and Santos-Buelga, 2004 and Tabart et al., 2007), however, in the present study better yields were obtained with acetone, as well as a good correlation with total

phenolic content (r = 0.82, p = 0.02). The procyanidins B1 and B2 are the compounds Orotic acid that showed the highest difference in content between the extractions with methanol and acetone, being approximately 35% higher. Foo and Porter (1981) have reported that acetone solutions gave higher yields with highly polymerised flavanoids from fruits. Santos-Buelga and Scalbert (2000) have reported that the high antioxidant capacity of procyanindins is due to the presence of the catechol unit on the aromatic B-ring, which stabilises the free radicals and their ability to chelate metals and proteins due to several o-dihydroxy phenolic groups in their high molecular weight structure. This could explain the higher antioxidant capacity of acetone extracts and the good correlations (p < 0.03) of procyanidins B1 and B2 with the DPPH (r = 0.81; r = 0.71, respectively) and FRAP (r = 0.79; r = 0.56, respectively) assays. In fact, solvents with different polarities may be required to extract more phenolic contents. For reach better yields, a sequential extraction with methanol and acetone solutions might be done. The optimal conditions achieved in this study can be useful to research procedures with apple phenolic compounds.

The applied separation voltage was 30 kV with positive polarity o

The applied separation voltage was 30 kV with positive polarity on the injection end. The comparative method, using the LC/MS/MS analysis, Selleck DAPT was

performed on chromatographic equipment consisting of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system (Agilent Technologies – Germany). Separation was performed on an Atlantis HILIC Silica Column (30 mm, 2.1 mm ID, 2.0 μm particle size) Waters. A multi-step isocratic and linear gradient of solvent A (H2O + 0.1% formic acid) and B (95:5 acetonitrile/H2O + 0.1% formic acid) was applied. The runs were performed using a mobile phase as follows: 0–2.5 min, 90% solvent B (isocratic mode); The flow rate was set at 0.15 mL/min. In all instances, the injection volume was 0.5 μL.

The column temperature was set to 30 °C. The LC system was coupled to a mass spectrometer system consisting of a hybrid triplequadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer Q Trap 3200 (Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex, Concord, Canada). Analyst version 1.5.1 was used for the LC/MS/MS system control and data analysis. The mass spectrometry was tuned in the negative and positive modes by infusion of polypropylene glycol PLX3397 mw solution. The experiments were performed using the TurboIonSprayTM source (electrospray-ESI) in positive ion mode. The capillary needle was maintained at 5500 V. MS/MS parameters: curtain gas, 10 psi; temperature, 400 °C; gas 1, 45 psi; gas 2, 45 psi; CAD gas, medium. Others parameters for the cone and collision energy are listed Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin in Table 1. HMF was monitored and quantified using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Optimisation of the mass spectrometer was performed by the direct infusion of an aqueous solution containing HMF investigated here. All reagents were of analytical grade, solvents were of chromatographic purity and the water was

purified by deionisation (Milli-Q system, Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA). 5-HMF, caffeine, sodium tetraborate (STB), methanol (MeOH) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) were obtained from Sigma–Aldrich (Santa Ana, CA, USA). Sodium hydroxide was purchased from Merck (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil). Stock solutions of 5-HMF (1000 mg L−1) were prepared in MeOH:water (50:50, v/v) at a 1000 mg L−1 concentration and stored at 4 °C until analysis. Separate aliquots (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mL) of 5-HMF stock solution were transferred to a 10 mL volumetric flask and diluted with distilled water to make the concentrations: 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg L−1, respectively. Caffeine was used as internal standard (IS), and stock solutions (1000 mg L−1) were prepared by dissolving 100 mg of caffeine in 100.0 mL of deionised water and stored it at 4 °C until analysis. The standard working solutions were prepared every day. In the direct analysis of 5-HMF the optimal electrolyte was composed of 5 mmol L−1 STB and 120 mmol L−1 SDS at pH 9.

Allyl ethers of e g 2,4,6-tribromophenol and TBBPA are handled b

Allyl ethers of e.g. 2,4,6-tribromophenol and TBBPA are handled by naming the phenol entity first and then introducing one or two ether functionalities, the latter denoted “bis” (b), to give the STABs: TrBPh-AE and TBBPA-bAE, respectively. Other ethers are treated similarly, with the aryl group first and with the alkyl ether group linked to the word “ether”. In order to minimize confusion, we propose the use of a set of standardized short forms for major parts of a molecule (or their name). The criteria for constructing the abbreviations are given below and in Table 1. The STABs of all BFRs, CFRs and PFRs are listed in plain letters under the PRABs of the same compound, presented in bold letters (Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4).

No inorganic FRs have been included in the present article since we feel that Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library screening the chemical formula can be used for most of those chemicals. 1. Abbreviations should, as far as possible, be based on a “readable” common name CTLA-4 inhibitor of the chemical. This may lead to the use of an abbreviation, such as TBBPA originating from the common name tetrabromobisphenol A. The goal is to minimize use of non-interpretable names as a base of the abbreviation if it is possible to do so. However, some names and structures of the FRs are very complex and it is unavoidable that the STABs also become complex. Di; Tr; Te; Pe; Hx; Hp; O; N; D; UD; DD; TrD; TeD; for the series of 2–14 substituents. 6. The aliphatic chains or rings and aromatic entities are presented in Table 1. Since the STABs tend to be quite complicated, N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase in numerous cases, we are proposing combinations of, in general, three to eight capital letters for PRABs. The PRABs take into account previously used abbreviations and shortening of the STABs. In a few cases the suggested PRABs exceed eight letters, but this is in cases where no other possibility was obvious to us. The goal has been to present PRABs that are derived in a logical manner (based on the STABs) and are expected to be adopted by the scientific community. Among the FRs discussed in this article, we propose

a hierarchy for clarification of the status of these chemicals in an environment and health perspective. First, it may be worth to stress that there is a difference in the definition of e.g. an “emerging chemical pollutant” and an “emerging issue”. Further, an “established pollutant” could of course be an “emerging issue”. Hence the following definitions are put forward for any FRs: Established FRs (BFRs/CFRs/PFRs) are chemicals which are extensively documented regarding production and use as FRs, chemistry, fate, exposures, environment and health issues (i.e. (eco-)toxicity and/or human health effects). The numbers of established, emerging, novel and/or potential BFRs, CFRs and PFRs identified and reported in this paper are 55, 18 and 23, respectively (Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4). These numbers do not include either congeners or enantiomers of a given FR.

, 2014, this special issue) The results of provenance research h

, 2014, this special issue). The results of provenance research have been crucial for tree breeding programmes, which mostly aim at gradual improvement of breeding Dabrafenib price populations rather than the development of new varieties (there are some exceptions, such as the breeding of eucalypts and poplars). Tree breeding was initiated in a few European countries in the 1930s (Hitt, 1952), and by the 1950s many countries across the world had established tree breeding programmes that currently include around 700 tree species

(according to FAO, 2014). Tree breeding is a rather slow process, as one cycle of testing and selection may take decades, rather than the months or year required in the breeding of most agricultural crops. The oldest tree breeding programmes are now 50–70 years old, and the most advanced of them are only in their third cycle of testing and selection (Neale and Kremer, 2011). Traditional tree breeding is based on the phenotypic selection of individuals (plus trees), testing their progeny and then selecting again the best individuals for the establishment of seed orchards and further breeding. Selleck Fulvestrant Testing is usually

focused on growth, wood properties, resistance or tolerance to pests and diseases, and other traits of commercial interest. More recently, climate change-related traits such as plasticity and drought tolerance have been increasingly considered by breeding programmes (FAO, 2014). Molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) has raised hopes to reduce the time and money needed for tree breeding, but the polygenic architecture of the traits and the variable expression of quantitative trait loci across environments mean that progress remains difficult when applying MAS to forest trees (Neale and Kremer, 2011). Tree breeding is mainly carried out by research institutes,

cooperatives and public and private companies. The level of engagement of different tree breeding programmes in international collaboration and germplasm transfer varies considerably, depending on the way they have organized their work and the availability of financial resources. In Australia, New Zealand and the United States, a number of breeding cooperatives were formed early to pool the resources of collaborators through joint breeding programmes for a number of tree P-type ATPase species. The International Tree Breeding and Conservation Program (Camcore), established in 1980, is a notable example largely funded by the private sector that now has a global membership. Camcore’s early work focused on Mesoamerican pines but now it convenes breeding programmes for both conifers and broadleaves, and it has had a major role in transferring tree germplasm for breeding purposes. From the 1980s, it undertook range-wide seed collections of 191 provenances of six Mesoamerican pines (P. tecunumanii, P. oocarpa, P. caribaea, P. maximinoi, P. patula and P. greggii) ( Dvorak et al., 1996) and it has established provenance or progeny trials at 823 locations in ten countries.

Finally, the average microhap heterozygosity globally should be g

Finally, the average microhap heterozygosity globally should be greater than any of the SNPs alone can achieve. Over the past decade we have accumulated SNP genotype data at multiple genomic regions for 50+ E7080 populations. In many of those regions the SNPs are densely packed with many SNPs within the targeted expanse. We used these genotypes already available on our set of 40+ populations as pilot data. Based on these analyses we then applied an average heterozygosity of >0.4 as an additional criterion when screening the Human Genome Diversity Project dataset [29] and the HapMap integrated (phases 1 + 2 + 3) dataset [30] for candidate microhaps.

These searches identified many candidate microhap loci; we have subsequently genotyped a few of the most promising of these as individual SNPs by TaqMan and statistically phased the genotype data into haplotypes. Those with the highest global average heterozygosity have been included in this study. During the course of our studies Nakahara et al. [28] presented a set of microhaps identified and studied in Japanese. We tested

one of them (COG2) and found it met our global criteria for the current panel; we have not tested the others. TSA HDAC price We note that while the ultimate objective is a panel of microhaplotypes for typing by sequencing, this initial characterization and selection of candidate loci is more efficiently and economically done with individual SNP typings, using preexisting data and new typings by TaqMan. The 54 populations studied, organized by geographical region of the world, are listed in Supplemental Table S1 along with

the sample size for each and the Sample UID in ALFRED [19] for additional information. These are the same population samples used in multiple publications [1], [2], [6], [17], [24], [31] and [32]. Collectively, these populations originate from most major regions of the world and include GNE-0877 a total of 2530 individuals of which 349 constitute about a third of the HGDP panel of around 1000 individuals. Table S1.   The 54 populations studied organized by geographical region. Column ABBREV shows the 3-character abbreviation employed in some figures and tables. Column Population UID holds the unique population identifier in ALFRED; Column Sample UID has the unique sample identifier in ALFRED. The DNA used has been extracted from lymphoblastoid cell lines. All individuals were typed with TaqMan assays from the Applied Biosystems Assays on Demand catalog. Typing was done in 3 μl reactions in 384-well plates using the manufacturer’s protocol. Following PCR in separate thermocyclers the plates were read using an AB7900 and the SDS software. Failed reactions were repeated once. In general, data were complete for >96% of individuals for each of the 66 SNPs (on average 98.9% complete).

, 2010) Heme mediates a feedback inhibition of the rate-limiting

, 2010). Heme mediates a feedback inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme synthetic pathway, synthase of 5-aminolevulinic acid. It also reconstitutes heme stores and function of various hemoproteins, namely hemoglobin, cytochrome P450, guanylate synthase, nitric oxide synthases, tryptophan dioxygenase, catalase

and peroxidase. However, neither the exact pathogenesis of the neurovisceral symptoms in acute porphyrias, nor the precise mechanism of action of heme arginate are understood (; Herrick and McColl, 2005 and Siegesmund et al., 2010). Nevertheless since HA has been approved for human use, it can PLX4032 be suggested that HA could be tested as a supplement of HAART in selected

cases. For example its administration could be suggested as an additional measure in early stages of HIV/AIDS disease to release the virus from the existing latent pool, while inhibiting its dissemination to the new viral reservoirs. Since the levels of TNF-α and other cytokines are increased and/or dysregulated in HIV/AIDS, HA might synergize with these cytokines in provirus reactivation also in vivo. The suggestion of HA use in HIV/AIDS is further supported by a case of an HIV-positive individual that was administered one infusion of Normosang because of anemia. This patient then remained p24 negative for several months Bortezomib mw (Pavel Martasek, General Faculty Hospital in Prague, Mephenoxalone personal communication). Obviously,

the use of HA should be tested first in animal models of retrovirus infection to assess its therapeutic potential against retroviruses more closely. Also, the administration of Normosang can be complicated by its adverse side effects. Vascular side effects of Normosang, especially on hemostasis, can occur, but they are reported to be much weaker than after administration of hematin (Panhaematin). Additionally, since hemin decreased HIV growth in humanized mice even when administered intraperitoneally ( Devadas and Dhawan, 2006), it is possible that the i.p. or some other way of administration of Normosang would be also effective against HIV in humans. Repeated administrations of HA could lead to an iron overload. However, HIV/AIDS disease is often accompanied by the anemia due to a chronic immune activation, altered porphyrin metabolism caused by iron deficiency ( Adetifa and Okomo, 2009 and Fuchs et al., 1990) as well as by treatment with antiretrovirals ( Bozzi et al., 2004 and Fox et al., 1999). All these conditions would be improved by the administration of heme, while iron overload might not develop. On the whole, these results suggest a possibility of an alternative approach to the management of HIV/AIDS disease.

However, whether these findings should generalise to non-scalar i

However, whether these findings should generalise to non-scalar implicatures is a theoretically contested issue. The main difference between cases such

as non-scalar (1) and scalar (2) is that, in the former case, the more informative alternative proposition can only be established with reference to context. By contrast, informational scales for expressions such as quantifiers (), sentential connectives buy Roxadustat () and modals () are available without reference to the specific context. Although Grice and subsequent theorists acknowledged this difference, both types of implicature satisfy the criteria to be considered as pragmatic aspects of meaning (see Geurts, 2010, Horn, 1984 and Levinson, 1983; Sadock, 1978; for empirical evidence see Breheny

et al., 2006, Katsos, 2008 and Katsos et al., 2005, and references therein). However, recent accounts of implicature differ as to whether these two types of implicature can be treated similarly. Default accounts of implicature (e.g. Chierchia, 2004 and Levinson, GSK1349572 concentration 2000) posit that implicatures arising from context-independent scales are linguistically and psycholinguistically privileged compared to fully context-dependent implicatures. Consequently, children are predicted to acquire the ability to process scalar implicatures earlier than non-scalar implicatures. For instance, Guasti et al. (2005) proposes that the scale may form part of the extended lexical entry for ‘some’, thus facilitating the scalar implicature. By contrast, unitary accounts of Thalidomide pragmatic inferencing ( Carston, 1998, Geurts, 2010, Hirschberg,

1991 and Sperber and Wilson, 1986/1995; i.a.) collapse the distinction between scalar and non-scalar implicatures on the grounds that both rely on contextually-specified expectations of informativeness. Preliminary empirical evidence that adjudicates between these two classes of account is available ( Papafragou & Tantalou, 2004; see Katsos (2009) for a critical discussion of the methodology), but the issue still remains open to comprehensive experimental investigation. The most frequently used paradigm for investigating the acquisition of implicature is the binary judgment task (Barner et al., 2011, Feeney et al., 2004, Foppolo et al., submitted for publication and Guasti et al., 2005; Katsos, 2009, Katsos et al., 2010, Noveck, 2001, Papafragou and Musolino, 2003, Papafragou and Tantalou, 2004 and Pouscoulous et al., 2007; among others. Many of these tasks are inspired by the Truth Value Judgment Task by Crain & Thornton, 1998). In this task, participants are asked to provide a binary judgment (typically ‘true’/‘false’ or ‘right’/‘wrong’) in cases where a situation is described using a less-than-optimally-informative statement. An example is the scenario in (3), where child participants are told that they are helping ‘Mr.

As with the full dataset, it is difficult to determine the relati

As with the full dataset, it is difficult to determine the relative influence of different land use impacts on sedimentation because of high correlations between land use variables (Fig. 3) and a large proportion of model variance is associated with random effects by catchment (i.e. inter-catchment differences). With the best model containing both cuts_no_buf and cutlines_no_buf as fixed-effect variables (

Table 4), both forestry- and energy-related land use activities appear to cumulatively relate to rates of sedimentation. Few studies have previously examined the impact of natural gas extraction on watershed sediment LY294002 clinical trial transfer. Measurements of sediment erosion from well pads in Texas ( Williams et al., 2008 and McBroom et al., 2012) and an examination of water quality data in Pennsylvania ( Olmstead et al., 2013) have all related elevated fluvial sediments to the presence of gas wells. We also explored the potential influence

of interdecadal climate change in our modeling of lake sedimentation in western Canada. The importance of extreme hydroclimatic events on episodic sediment transfer Selleckchem Dabrafenib is well established (e.g. Church et al., 1989), and many anomalous pulses of sedimentation in our study dataset have been attributed to specific floods (Spicer, 1999, Schiefer et al., 2001a and Schiefer and Immell, 2012). Contemporary climate change was proposed as an explanation for increasing sedimentation rates in some very of the undisturbed study lakes, but

no associated empirical relations were explored. Effects of climate change were hard to discern in the global review of lake sediment records by Dearing and Jones (2003) because of the compounding and dominant effect of land use. In relatively undisturbed lake catchments in upland areas of Europe, generally increasing trends in sedimentation have been attributed to the likely influence of climate change, but controlling climate attributes remain uncertain (Rose et al., 2011). None of these large-scale studies attempted to quantitatively relate lake sedimentation patterns with longer term climate change (only individual extreme events). Our stepwise analysis with mixed effects modeling included multiple variables describing climate change over the last half century (Table 1). Best models for the entire catchment inventory and the Foothills-Alberta Plateau subset included climate variables temp_open and temp_closed, respectively. The two temperature variables are highly correlated, and model fits are negligibly affected when they are interchanged. Increasing temperatures, both in the open- and closed-water seasons, can be associated with elevated autochthonous or allochthonous sedimentation by increasing aquatic and terrestrial productivity, as well as potentially increasing the proportion of precipitation falling as rain.

Radiocarbon ages were calibrated using the IntCal09 calibration c

Radiocarbon ages were calibrated using the IntCal09 calibration curve (Reimer

et al., 2009) and probabilities were summed using OxCal version 4.1 (Bronk Ramsey, 2009). To remove the effects of the variation in the gradient of the calibration curve and in alluvial unit preservation, the probability distribution for anthropogenic alluvium dates was divided by the probability distribution for all 844 dates within the radiocarbon database to give a relative probability distribution, following Hoffman et al. (2008) and Macklin et al. (2010). The resulting probability curves were then normalized by dividing each date by the highest probability in the data set. Relative probability Dolutegravir datasheet distributions have been plotted with the frequencies of dates in 100-year intervals, calculated using the mid-point of the 2σ calibrated age range. Fig. 1 shows the location of sites in the UK where Holocene fluvial units have been 14C dated. AA has been identified at 93 out of 256 (36%) of these sites. This is not to say that alluviation at 163 locations

has not also been affected by anthropogenic activity, but using our strict criteria this is not registered using the information reported in publications. 130 out of 844 dated UK fluvial units (15%) can be classified as AA. Anthropogenic alluvium is recorded only at one site in the Scottish Highlands and is probably under-represented in eastern England and the English Channel catchments, as well as in tidally influenced river reaches because of the lack of 14C-dated Holocene fluvial units. Only two 14C-dated Panobinostat AA units are classified as colluvial and debris flow deposits. The oldest AA unit is dated to c. 4400 cal. BP (Early Bronze Age) and there is an apparent 1500 year lag between the adoption of agriculture in the UK, as recorded by direct 14C dating of cereal grains (Stevens and Fuller, 2012), and its impact on floodplain sedimentation (Fig. 2). There

is, however, no correspondence between accelerated lake sedimentation – attributed to anthropogenic activity (Edwards and Whittington, 2001) – and AA, except at c.1000 cal. BP. Furthermore, Inositol monophosphatase 1 episodes (c. 6000, 5000 and 3000 cal. BP) where lake deposition rates increase between the beginning of the Neolithic and the end of the Bronze Age, do not correspond with periods of notable cereal cultivation as identified by Stevens and Fuller (2012). Indeed, they coincide with troughs in the independently summed probability distribution of cultivated plant food and suggest that the primary cause of accelerated sedimentation was not related to arable farming. Alternatively, climate change and/or over-grazing in these mostly small catchments in northern and western Britain and Ireland could have been contributing factors.

This study was funded by grants to JCL from the National Institut

This study was funded by grants to JCL from the National Institutes of Health–National Center for Complementary and Alternative Z-VAD-FMK solubility dmso Medicine (K24-AT002422) and the Osteopathic Heritage Foundation. The authors thank the personnel at The Osteopathic Research Center for their contributions to this study. “
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image Download high-quality image (116 K) Download as PowerPoint slide Yukio Fukuyama (1928–2014) [Reproduced with modification from Brain Dev 2004;26:1–4 by permission.] Dr. Yukio Fukuyama, Professor Emeritus at Tokyo Women’s Medical University and the most respected child neurologist in the world, passed away in Tokyo on July 17, 2014, at age 86. He was born in a small town in Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu, and raised in Kumamoto City until the age of 20. He graduated from the Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, in 1952. During his medical school days, he became interested in neurology. Dr. Fukuyama was trained at the Department of Pediatrics after graduation and soon began promoting child neurology, which until then had not been well organized worldwide. He founded the Japanese Society of Child Neurology (JSCN) in 1961, the first child neurology society in the world, starting with about 150 members. Within 30 years this membership exceeded 3000. In fact,

the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology awarded the first board certificate in Neurology Selleck LY294002 with Special Qualifications in Child Neurology in 1969, and

the Child Neurology Society was founded with an initial enrollment of 223 members three years later, in 1972. He was appointed Professor and Chairman of Pediatrics at Tokyo Women’s Medical College Galeterone (currently Tokyo Women’s Medical University) in 1967, and showed excellent leadership in the field of child neurology as well as in general pediatrics in Japan. He retired in 1994 and became Director at the Child Neurology Institute in Tokyo. He devoted himself to teaching, clinical practice, and scientific research for 27 years of his professorship. His memoir (Brain Dev 2004;26:1–4) described that he trained 330 physicians, guided 129 degree theses, and published 187 reviews and 661 original articles. His scientific interests and contributions covered broad areas in general pediatrics and child neurology, especially myology and epileptology. His most famous achievement was the discovery of Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy in 1960. Its causative gene was mapped at 9q31, which was later found to express the protein fukutin. These achievements were eventually awarded the Asahi Prize and several other domestic and international awards. He also pursued the study of myasthenia gravis in children, notably the seronegative type that is prevalent in Japan. He made a remarkable contribution also to pediatric epileptology.