Excretory concretions (25 +/- 3 9) were visualized within excreto

Excretory concretions (25 +/- 3.9) were visualized within excretory tubules, close to the ventral sucker and genital anlage. The oral

sucker armed with spines and digestive system was similar to those of adult worms. The reproductive system is composed of a genital anlage and the cirrus sac primordium. In short, trypsin and bile salts associated were fundamental for the in vitro metacercariae excystation of Echinostoma paraensei. This article presents the first detailed information of all stages of metacercariae excystation obtained through light and confocal microscopy. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Background and Purpose-A potential way to improve prehospital stroke care and patient handoff is hospital-directed feedback for emergency medical service (EMS) providers. We evaluated whether a hospital-directed EMS stroke follow-up tool improved documentation of adherence PF-03084014 order to the Rhode Island state prehospital stroke protocol for EMS providers. Methods-A standardized, 10-item feedback tool was developed in 2012 and sent to EMS directors for every transported patient with a discharge diagnosis of ischemic stroke. We reviewed patient charts meeting these criteria between January 2008 and December 2013. Performance on the tool was compared between the preintervention (January 2008 through Bafilomycin A1 ic50 January 2012) and postintervention (February 2012 through December 2013) periods. Results-We identified 1176 patients with ischemic

stroke who arrived by EMS in the study period: 668 in the preintervention period and 508 in the postintervention period. The overall score for the preintervention group was 5.31 and for the postintervention group 6.42 (P smaller than 0.001). Each of the 10 items, except checking blood glucose, showed statistically significant improvement in the postintervention period compared with the preintervention period. Conclusions-Hospital-directed feedback to EMS was associated with improved

overall compliance Selleck QNZ with state protocols and documentation of 9 out of 10 individual items. Future confirmatory studies in different locales and studies on the impact of this intervention on actual tissue-type plasminogen activator administration rates and EMS personnel knowledge and behavior are needed.”
“BackgroundBRAF mutation status, and therefore eligibility for BRAF inhibitors, is currently determined by sequencing methods. We assessed the validity of VE1, a monoclonal antibody against the BRAFV600E mutant protein, in the detection of mutant BRAF V600E melanomas as classified by DNA pyrosequencing. MethodsThe cases were 76 metastatic melanoma patients with only one known primary melanoma who had had BRAF codon 600 pyrosequencing of either their primary (n=19), metastatic (n=57) melanoma, or both (n=17). All melanomas (n=93) were immunostained with the BRAF VE1 antibody using a red detection system. The staining intensity of these specimens was scored from 0 to 3+ by a dermatopathologist.

This was a retrospective cohort study of 30 patients with complic

This was a retrospective cohort study of 30 patients with complicated IHs who received treatment with OP. Patients were divided into two groups: OP treatment this website of 8 months or less and OP treatment of longer than 8 months. OP was started at 1 mg/kg/day in three doses every 8 hours for 1 week and increased to 1.5 to 4 mg/kg/day afterward. Ultrasound was used to objectively measure the response to treatment. Clinical and ultrasound assessment showed a decrease in IH size and resolution of complications in all patients (n = 30). In the short-term group (n = 10), nine patients (90%) relapsed after stopping treatment. In the long-term group

(n = 20), the duration of treatment was 12 months in all patients, and only 1 patient out of the 20 treated (5%) showed relapse

2 months after finishing the full treatment (odds ratio = 18, 95% confidence interval 2.6, 123, p < 0.001. Twelve months of treatment of IH with OP is associated with a significantly lower rate of relapse than with shorter treatment.”
“Background-AVID (Angiography Versus NU7441 DNA Damage inhibitor Intravascular ultrasound-Directed stent placement) is a multicenter, randomized controlled trial designed to assess the effect of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-directed stent placement on the 12-month rate of target lesion revascularization (TLR).\n\nMethods and Results-After elective AZD9291 concentration coronary stent placement and an optimal angiographic result (<10% stenosis), 800 patients were randomized to Angiography-or IVUS-directed therapy. Blinded IVUS was performed

in the Angiography group without further therapy. In the IVUS group, IVUS criteria for optimal stent placement (<10% area stenosis, apposition, and absence of dissection) were applied. Final minimum stent area was 6.90 +/- 2.43 mm(2) in the Angiography group and 7.55 +/- 2.82 mm(2) in the IVUS group (P=0.001). In the IVUS group, only 37% with inadequate expansion (<90%) received further therapy. The 12-month TLR rate was 12.0% in the Angiography group and 8.1% in the IVUS group (P=0.08, 95% confidence level [CI], [-8.3% to 0.5%]). When vessels with a distal reference diameter <2.5 mm by core laboratory angiography measurement were excluded from analysis, the 12-month TLR rate was 10.1% in the Angiography group and 4.3% in the IVUS group (P=0.01, 95% CI, [-10.6% to -1.2%]). With a prestent angiographic stenosis of >= 70%, the TLR rate was lower in the IVUS group compared with the Angiography group (3.1% versus 14.2%; P=0.002; 95% CI, [-18.4% to -4.2%]).\n\nConclusions-IVUS-directed bare-metal stent placement results in larger acute stent dimensions without an increase in complications and a significantly lower 12-month TLR rate for vessels >= 2.5 mm by angiography and for vessels with high-grade prestent stenosis.

This clinical trial focused on efficacy and did not investigate e

This clinical trial focused on efficacy and did not investigate end-points relating to mode-of-action of the vaccine. In a murine model we investigated mode-of-action, efficacy, and safety of a homologous RENCA cell-based vaccine.\n\nDesign, setting, and participants: Six groups with 12 BALB/c mice per group received five vaccinations click here (lysate of 1 x 10(6)-1 x 10(7) RENCA cells, manufactured with or without prior IFN-gamma incubation) at 3-wk intervals before tumour transplantation and one vaccination 14 d afterwards.

Controls (12 mice) received only solvent. All mice were sacrificed 21 d after turnout transplantation.\n\nMeasurements: Animal welfare. tumour growth, number of metastases, and the presence of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes

as determined by a (51)chromium-release assay. Adoptive immune transfer experiments (vaccination of nine mice with the RENCA vaccine or saline and transfer of serum, spleen cells, and CD4 and/or CD8 depleted spleen cells into five recipient mice each) were carried out to demonstrate involvement of different immune mechanisms.\n\nResults: All controls developed a renal tumour, compared to 7/72 animals (9.7%) in the vaccine groups. The mean number of lung metastases was 100 (range 3-750) in controls and 4 (range 0-196) in the vaccine groups, respectively. Tumour uptake and number of metastases were not related to the vaccine dose. The (51)chromium-release assay confirmed a significant tumour-specific cytolytic activity and marginally MRT67307 concentration increased NK activity of splenocytes from vaccinated mice against RENCA cells compared to controls. Adoptive immune transfer experiments showed that the antitumoural effective immune mechanisms are cell-based. Conclusions: We could demonstrate the mode-of-action, efficacy, and safety of a homologous turnout vaccine in a RENCA model. These findings support the positive results from a phase-III trial with Reniale. (C) 2008 European Galardin Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. Ail rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: To investigate parental

smoking patterns and their association with wheezing in children.\n\nMETHODS: We performed a case-control study that included 105 children between 6 and 23 months of age who were divided into two groups: cases (children with 3 previous episodes of wheezing) and controls (healthy children without wheezing). The children’s exposure to cigarette smoking was estimated using a questionnaire completed by the mothers and by the children’s urinary cotinine levels.\n\nRESULTS: Based on both the questionnaire results and cotinine levels, exposure to cigarette smoking was higher in the households of cases in which the incidence of maternal smoking was significantly higher than that of paternal smoking.

Eighty seven percent of patients had their disease activity under

Eighty seven percent of patients had their disease activity under control at the time of last follow up whereas four percent still had an active disease. In another four percent died during the course of therapy and the outcome was unknown in another four percent of patients who lost to follow up.\n\nConclusions:

Clinical characteristics and antinuclear antibody pattern of Nepalese lupus patients is more or less similar to those with patients from other countries in the region and in the World.”
“Background. The purpose of this study ON-01910 was to investigate the effect of liver compliance on computed tomography (CT) volumetry and to determine its association with postoperative small-for-size syndrome (SFSS).\n\nPatients and methods. Unenhanced, arterial, and venous phase CT images of 83 consecutive living liver donors who underwent graft hepatectomy for BEZ235 adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT) were prospectively subjected to three-dimensional (3-D) CT liver volume calculations and virtual 3-D liver partitioning. Graft volume estimates based on 3-D volumetry, which subtracted intrahepatic vascular volume from the “smallest” (native) unenhanced and the “largest” (venous) CT phases, were subsequently compared with the intraoperative graft weights. Calculated (preoperative) graft volume-to-body weight ratios (GVBWR) and intraoperative measured graft weight-to-body weight ratios (GWBWR)

were analyzed for postoperative SFSS.\n\nResults. Significant differences in minimum versus maximum total liver volumes, graft volumes, and GVBWR calculations were observed among the largest (venous) and the smallest (unenhanced) CT phases. SFSS occurred in 6% (5/83) of recipients, with a mortality rate of 80% (4/5). In four cases with postoperative SFSS (n = 3 lethal, n = 1 reversible), we had transplanted PF-6463922 purchase a small-for-size graft (real GWBWR < 0.8). The three SFS grafts with lethal SFSS showed a nonsignificant volume “compliance” with a maximum GVBWR < 0.83. This observation contrasts with the seven recipients with small-for-size grafts and reversible versus no SFSS who showed a “safe” maximum GVBWR of 0.92 to 1.16.\n\nConclusion.

The recognition and precise assessment of each individual’s liver compliance displayed by the minimum and maximum GVBWR values is critical for the accurate prediction of functional liver mass and prevention of SFSS in ALDLT.”
“Enzyme-mediated decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) is controlled, amongst other factors, by organic matter properties and by the microbial decomposer community present. Since microbial community composition and SOM properties are often interrelated and both change with soil depth, the drivers of enzymatic decomposition are hard to dissect. We investigated soils from three regions in the Siberian Arctic, where carbon rich topsoil material has been incorporated into the subsoil (cryoturbation).

The migration phenomena open new study prospectives, but also met

The migration phenomena open new study prospectives, but also methodological questions

(definition of immigrants and of reference populations).”
“The most widely used technique for isolation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) from bone marrow includes density gradient centrifugation, recovery of the mononuclear cell population, and subsequent isolation of hBMSCs by virtue of their plastic adherence. During subsequent in vitro cultivation, they may lose their original characteristics since in vitro the stem learn more cell niche cannot yet be properly mimicked. To further characterize these culture-induced changes in regard to mRNA and extra- and intracellular protein expression, as well as potential differences between hBMSCs from different donors, we investigated a panel of CD antigens for their presence on in vitro cultured hBMSCs. Interestingly, after culture-induced downregulation of their

extracellular expression, both CD146 and CD271 persist intracellularly, which hints at the possibility that culture-induced changes BMS-777607 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor may be reversed by appropriate stimuli. Further, CD34a protein whose expression on hBMSCs is still controversialis expressed at the intracellular level in hBMSCs of all donors independently of passage number. CD34 mRNA levels are significantly higher in female than in male donors. In summary, we further elucidate phenotypical changes induced by in vitro culture of hBMSCs, highlight interindividual differences in the phenotype of these cells and for the first time show the intracellular expression of CD34.”
“BackgroundThe neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a high-risk setting for transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The recent prevalence of colonization with MRSA in patients and its control measures are unknown in Japanese NICU. We investigated the prevalence of MRSA colonization in patients and measures to control and prevent health-care-associated transmission in Japanese this website NICU in 2011. MethodsA nationwide

survey was performed in facilities certified as training hospitals for neonatologists. Data in NICU and growing care units (GCU) were collected and analyzed regarding surveillance cultures for MRSA and the proportion of MRSA-colonized patients in September 2011. Trends in the proportion of MRSA-colonized patients and the measures to control and prevent health-care-associated MRSA transmission were investigated in the surveyed NICU in 2000, 2003, and 2011. ResultsA total of 168 NICU and 158 GCU were analyzed. The proportions of NICU and GCU that conducted regular surveillance cultures for MRSA were 81% and 66%, respectively. MRSA colonization was not found in 53% of NICU and in 45% of GCU. The percentage of NICU reported to be free of MRSA colonization increased over time.

However, although many stroke patients receive physical or occupa

However, although many stroke patients receive physical or occupational therapy in primary health care, treatment prescriptions do not generally specify therapeutic goals; in particular, participation is not established ERK signaling inhibitors as an explicit therapeutic goal in the ambulatory setting. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a therapy regimen for chronic stroke patients (modified ‘constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) at home’) with impaired hand or arm function with

regard to the prerequisites of participation in everyday activities: a sufficient arm and hand function. ‘CIMT at home’ will be compared with conventional physical and occupational therapy (‘therapy as usual’).\n\nMethods/design: The study is a parallel cluster randomized controlled trial with therapy practices as clusters (n = 48). After written consent from the patients (n = 144), the therapists will be randomly assigned to treat either the intervention or the control group. Blinded external assessors will evaluate the patients using standardized outcome measures before and after the intervention, and six months later. The two coprimary endpoint assessments

of arm and hand function as prerequisites for participation (defined as equal involvement in activities of daily living) are the motor activity log (quality of arm and hand use) and the Wolf motor function test (arm and hand function). These assessments are made four weeks post-treatment and relativized to baseline performance. Changes in primary outcomes will be analyzed PXD101 with mixed models, which consider the hierarchical structure of the data and will be adjusted to the baseline measurements and sex. The primary analysis will be the comparison of the two randomized groups, with respect to the adjusted averages for each of the two coprimary endpoints. To keep an overall significance level of 5%, the two endpoints will be tested at

the significance level of 5% each Evofosfamide in hierarchical order.\n\nDiscussion: A modification of the CIMT, feasible in the patients’ homes (CIMT at home), appears to be a promising therapeutic approach in the ambulatory care of chronic stroke patients. With proven efficacy and practicality, a participation-oriented, stroke-specific treatment would be available in primary care.”
“Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) spectra of aqueous solutions of the triphenylmethane dye methyl green have been obtained for the first time by use of citrate-reduced silver colloids and a laser excitation wavelength of 632.8 nm. Given the highly fluorescent nature of the analyte, which precluded collection of normal Raman spectra of the dye in solution and powdered state, it was highly encouraging that SERRS spectra showed no fluorescence due to quenching by the silver sol. The pH conditions for SERRS were optimised over the pH range 0.5-10 and the biggest enhancement for SERRS of this charged dye was found to be at pH 2.

Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1) helps facilitate t

Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1) helps facilitate the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, but the exact mechanism by which this differentiation occurs, in response to TGF-beta 1, remains unclear. Myocardin-related transcription factors A and B Citarinostat (MRTFs, MRTF-A/B) are transcriptional co-activators that regulate the expression of smooth muscle-specific cytoskeletal proteins, including SM alpha A, in smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. In this study, we demonstrate that TGF-beta 1 mediates myofibroblast differentiation and the expression

of a contractile gene program through the actions of the MRTFs. Transient transfection of a constitutively active MRTF-A induced an increase in the expression of SM alpha A and other smooth muscle-specific cytoskeletal proteins, and an increase in myofibroblast contractility, even in the absence of TGF-beta 1. MRTF-A/B knockdown, in TGF-beta 1-differentiated myofibroblasts, resulted in decreased smooth muscle-specific learn more cytoskeletal protein expression levels and reduced contractile force generation, as well as a decrease in focal adhesion size and number. These results provide

direct evidence that the MRTFs are mediators of myofibroblast differentiation in response to TGF-beta 1.”
“Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is commonly performed using 2D single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI). However, single-shot EPI at 7 Testa (T) often suffers from significant geometric distortions (due to low bandwidth (BW) in the phase-encode (PE) direction) and amplified physiological noise. Recent studies have suggested that 3D multi-shot sequences such as PRESTO may offer comparable BOLD contrast-to-noise ratio with increased volume coverage and decreased geometric distortions. Adavosertib inhibitor Thus, a four-way group-level comparison was performed between 2D and 3D

acquisition sequences at two in-plane resolutions. The quality of fMRI data was evaluated via metrics of prediction and reproducibility using NPAIRS (Non-parametric Prediction, Activation, Influence and Reproducibility re-Sampling). Group activation maps were optimized for each acquisition strategy by selecting the number of principal components that jointly maximized prediction and reproducibility, and showed good agreement in sensitivity and specificity for positive BOLD changes. High-resolution EPI exhibited the highest z-scores of the four acquisition sequences; however, it suffered from the lowest BW in the PE direction (resulting in the worst geometric distortions) and limited spatial coverage, and also caused some subject discomfort through peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS).

“The localization of phosphorylation sites in peptide sequ

“The localization of phosphorylation sites in peptide sequences is a challenging problem in large-scale phosphoproteomics analysis. The intense neutral loss peaks and the coexistence of multiple serine/threonine and/or tyrosine residues are limiting factors for objectively

scoring site patterns across thousands of peptides. Various computational approaches for phosphorylation site localization have been proposed, AZD8055 cost including Ascore, Mascot Delta score, and ProteinProspector, yet few address direct estimation of the false localization rate (FLR) in each experiment. Here we propose LuciPHOr, a modified target-decoy-based approach that uses mass accuracy and peak intensities for site localization scoring and FLR estimation. Accurate estimation of the FLR is a difficult task at the individual-site level because

the degree of uncertainty in localization varies significantly across different peptides. LuciPHOr carries out simultaneous localization on all candidate sites in each peptide and estimates the FLR based on the target-decoy framework, where decoy phosphopeptides generated by placing artificial phosphorylation(s) on non-candidate residues compete with the non-decoy phosphopeptides. LuciPHOr also reports approximate site-level confidence scores for all candidate sites as a means to localize additional sites from multiphosphorylated peptides in which localization can be partially achieved. Unlike the existing tools, LuciPHOr is compatible with any search engine output processed through the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline. We evaluated the performance Stattic JAK/STAT inhibitor of LuciPHOr in terms of the sensitivity and accuracy of FLR estimates using two synthetic phosphopeptide libraries and a phosphoproteomic dataset generated from complex mouse brain samples.”
“Introduction: Bacterial this website resistance to third generation cephalosporins due to Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) production is a major drug-resistance

issue. The present work was undertaken to investigate the antimicrobial activity of cinnamon, clove, garlic, tulsi and neem essential oils and their bioactive compounds against pathogenic ESBL producing bacteria. Methodology: ESBL producing property of the bacteria as well as antibacterial activity of essential oils and the effective bioactive compound(s) against them was investigated by disc diffusion assay. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of bioactive compound(s) and their interaction with ESBL proteins were determined by macro-broth dilution and molecular docking method, respectively. Results: Out of 134 pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, 57.8% Escherichia coli and 50.6% Klebsiella pneumoniae demonstrated ESBL property. Cinnamon and clove oil exhibited stronger antibacterial activity against these ESBL isolates than tulsi, garlic or neem oil.

Most of the tetracycline-resistant isolates carried the tet(M) an

Most of the tetracycline-resistant isolates carried the tet(M) and/or tet(L) genes. The erm(B) gene was detected in all erythromycin-resistant isolates. The ant(6)-Ia, aph(3′)-Ia and aac(6′)-aph(2aEuro(3)) genes were detected www.selleckchem.com/products/as1842856.html in nine aminoglycoside-resistant isolates. Of our isolates, 11.5 % carried the gelE gene and exhibited gelatinase acitivity.

The esp gene was detected in 10 % of our isolates and the hyl gene was not present in any isolate. The predominant species (E. faecium and E. hirae) showed a high genetic diversity by repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR. Food animals might play a role in the spread through the food chain of enterococci with virulence and resistance traits to humans.”
“Dietary pulverized konjac glucomannan (PKGM) suppresses the development of eczema in NC/Nga mice, a model of atopic dermatitis (AD). Although NC/Nga mice were originally recognized as an autoimmune disease model, recent studies on their autoimmunity are still poorly performed. Here, we show that cervical lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and increases in plasma levels of anti-dsDNA, rheumatoid

factor IgG autoantibodies, and B cell-activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) were co-elicited in eczematous NC/Nga mice; however, this website these symptoms were all prevented in PKGM-fed mice. Our results imply the possible involvement of autoimmunity on the pathogenesis of dermatitis and hyper-IgE syndrome in NC/Nga mice. PKGM might be effective in preventing autoimmune responses in AD.”
“We modified the capsid protein Of a human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) belonging to subgenogroup C4 (HEV71-C4) to generate a mouse virulent strain, based on the genetic information derived from our previous subgenogroup B3 mouse-adapted virus. Infectious clone-derived mutant

virus populations containing the capsid protein mutations VP1-Q145E and VP1-Q145G were generated by site-directed mutagenesis of an infectious clone of a subgenogroup C4 strain. Viruses expressing Alvocidib in vitro the VP1-Q145E were virulent in 5-day-old BALB/c mice with 100% mortality rate observed. Skeletal muscle appears to be the primary site of replication of this virus with limb muscle showing severe myositis. Virus was also isolated from spleen, liver, heart and brain of infected mice. This study demonstrates that introducing a key mutation into the HEV71 VP1 capsid protein is able to generate a mouse virulent HEV71 strain from a different genogroup as well as providing an alternative strategy for the generation of mouse virulent HEV71.”
“Background: MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression including differentiation and development by either inhibiting translation or inducing target degradation.

Furthermore, the addition of Telaprevir significantly alters the

Furthermore, the addition of Telaprevir significantly alters the dynamics and relationships between innate immune biomarkers and treatment effects and outcome.”
“We report on a systematical study of the structure, magnetism, and magnetotransport behavior of the hexagonal MnNiGa films deposited on thermally Repotrectinib oxidized Si (001) substrates by magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffractions reveal that all the films deposited at different temperatures crystallized in hexagonal

Ni2In-type structure (space group P6(3)/mmc). Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the surface morphology of the films varies with deposition temperature, and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis shows compositions of the films selleckchem remain nearly

unchanged, independent of the deposition temperature. Magnetic measurements indicate that all films are ferromagnetic and exhibit a magnetic anisotropy behavior. The magnetoresistance (MR) exhibits a negative temperature-and field-dependent behavior. The possible origin of the negative MR is discussed. Furthermore, we found that the Hall effect is dominated by an anomalous Hall effect (AHE) only due to skew scattering independent of the deposition temperature of films. Moreover, the anomalous Hall resistivity presents a non-monotonously temperature-dependent behavior. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“BACKGROUND. Patients with localized esophageal cancer (LEG) have diverse outcomes (post-therapy pathologic response, disease-free survival [DFS], and overall survival [OS]) after preoperative chemoradiation (P-CTRT), dictated also by inherent molecular heterogeneity. Whether the type of therapy influences the outcomes remains largely unanswered. It is hypothesized that induction chemotherapy (IC) or the type of cytotoxics used would not influence patient outcomes.\n\nMETHODS. In this retrospective analysis, consecutive patients with LEC who had P-CTRT were analyzed. Data were collected

regarding age, sex, baseline clinical stage, location, type of cytotoxics, post-therapy pathology, DFS, and OS. www.selleckchem.com/products/etomoxir-na-salt.html IC and the type of cytotoxics used were found to be correlated with DIPS, OS, and post-therapy pathologic response.\n\nRESULTS. A total of 180 patients with LEC (119 had IC before P-CTRT, all had received 5-fluorouracil, 87 had received a taxane, and 57 had received a platinol) were analyzed. The median survival (MS) of all patients was 57.7 months and the 3-year and 5-year OS rates were 65.4% and 46.5%, respectively. The type of therapy appeared to have no influence on the outcome: IC versus no IC (P =.58) or platinol versus taxane versos platinol pins taxane (P =.63). Similarly, the type of pathologic: response was not found to be influenced by IC (P =.18) or the type of cytotoxics used (P =.42). The data were similar for DFS.\n\nCONCLUSIONS.