J Biol Chem 2002, 277: 17743–17750 CrossRefPubMed 26 Abdelhaleem

J Biol Chem 2002, 277: 17743–17750.CrossRefPubMed 26. Abdelhaleem M: Do human RNA helicases have a role in cancer? Biochim Biophys Acta 2004, 1704: 37–46.PubMed 27. Causevic selleckchem M, Hislop RG, Kernohan NM, Carey FA, Kay RA, Steele RJ, Fuller-Pace FV: Overexpression and poly-ubiquitylation of the DEAD-box RNA helicase p68 in colorectal tumours. Oncogene 2001, 20: 7734–7743.CrossRefPubMed 28. Hashimoto K, Nakagawa Y,

Morikawa H, Niki M, Egashira Y, Hirata I, Katsu K, Akao Y: Co-overexpression of DEAD box protein rck/p54 and c-myc protein in human colorectal adenomas and the relevance of their expression in cultured cell lines. Carcinogenesis 2001, 22: 1965–1970.CrossRefPubMed Competing interests The Smoothened Agonist concentration authors declare that they have no financial competing interests. Authors’ contributions ZZ conceived of the study and guided the biochemical experiments. CH performed DD-PCR and drafted the manuscript. XL performed real-time PCR, analyzed data, collected tissue

specimens and clinical records, and helped write the manuscript. RH conceived of the idea and provided helpful comments. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Pancreatic cancer remains a lethal disease and is the fourth to fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world, despite a significant reduction of the postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with pancreatectomy[1, 2]. While surgical resection represents the only definitive option for cure of this disease and complete tumor resection

is associated with longer survival, only 10% to 15% of patients have resectable disease[3, 4]. Most patients with pancreatic cancer have locally advanced tumors, metastases, or both at the time of diagnosis. In addition, tumors frequently recur, even after margin-free curative resection, and most patients with recurrence have metastasis, which is often fatal. To improve the survival of patients with pancreatic cancer, we need a new strategy for the treatment of advanced disease that is unsuitable for surgical resection. Metastasis is a multistep process in which tumor cells migrate through the stroma and invade a vessel, after else which the cells are transported through the circulation to re-invade and proliferate at a distant site. Dozens of regulators influence each step of the metastatic cascade[5, 6]. In 1996, KiSS-1 was identified as a human metastasis-suppressing gene in melanoma cells[7] and breast cancer cells[8]. Then, the KiSS-1 gene product was isolated from human placenta as the endogenous ligand of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor known as GPR54[9], AXOR12[10], or hOT7T175[11]. KiSS-1 encodes a 145-amino acid peptide which is further processed to a C-terminally amidated peptide with 54 amino acids Evofosfamide chemical structure called metastin[11] or kisspeptin-54, as well as to peptides with 14 amino acids (kisspeptin-14) and 13 amino acids (kisspeptin-13)[9].

Conclusions We found that rattan palms exhibit a distinct hump-sh

Conclusions We found that rattan palms exhibit a distinct hump-shaped elevational pattern in both species richness and density that differs from patterns typically found both for other palms and lianas. Fragmentary LXH254 in vivo data from other sites suggest that this may not only be a local phenomenon of our study area, but more typical of Southeast Asia as a whole. Importantly, however, commercially important species with long stems of large diameters are largely restricted to

elevations below 1000 m. This elevational zone is by far the most heavily impacted by human activities and least protected in LLNP in particular (Erasmi et al. 2004; Schulze et al. 2004; Waltert et al. 2004) and in Southeast Asia in general. Thus, while there are

high rattan species numbers and densities at high elevations largely unaffected by human activities, the use of commercially valuable rattan palms is restricted to lowland forests. The long-term effects of intensive, repeated cane harvesting on species richness and densities remain to be determined. While Siebert (2004) recorded no mortality of C. zollingeri rattans Ralimetinib research buy irrespective of cane harvesting intensities and that harvesting stimulated the production of new shoots (i.e., ramets) over four years in southern LLNP, he also found that little Selleck H 89 harvestable cane (i.e., canes longer than 10 m) remained in these forests due to intensive and unregulated harvesting pressure. Furthermore, harvesting effects will vary by species. Rattans capable of vegetative reproduction, such as C. zollingeri, may persist longer when subject to intense harvesting than solitary rattans that can only reproduce sexually (i.e., that must flower

and fruit), such as CHIR-99021 molecular weight C. leptostachys. However, even if rattans capable of vegetative reproduction survive intensive harvesting, they are unlikely to produce mature canes that flower or fruit with potentially significant long-term implications for plant growth and survival. Sulawesi harbours an abundant and diverse rattan flora due to its complex geology, diverse climatic conditions and extreme elevational gradients. Sampling and taxonomic revision still needs to be done to assess actual species richness of Sulawesi. Future studies should also include long-term monitoring and sustainable management of commercially important rattan populations. Acknowledgments Field-work was kindly supported by the Collaborative Research Centre SFB 552 STORMA (Stability of Tropical Rainforest Margins) at the University of Göttingen, funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). We thank the coordination offices in Palu and Göttingen, especially Muhammad Sigit Andhi Rahman and Wolfram Lorenz.

Therefore, our findings strongly suggest that Bifidobacterium inf

Therefore, our findings strongly suggest that Bifidobacterium infantis-mediated Selleckchem AZD6094 tumor-targeting suicide gene therapy system may represent a novel therapy for bladder cancer. Acknowledgements The reported work was supported by a research grant from the Research Development Foundation of Health Bureau of Chongqing, China (No. 072032). References

1. Roopashri AN, Varadaraj MC: Molecular characterization of native isolates of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and yeasts for beneficial attributes. Appl Microbiol Selleckchem CFTRinh-172 Biotechnol 2009, 83: 1115–1126.CrossRefPubMed 2. Sela DA, Chapman J, Adeuya A, Kim JH, Chen F, Whitehead TR, Lapidus A, Rokhsar DS, Lebrilla CB, German JB, Price NP, Richardson PM, Mills DA: The genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis reveals adaptations for milk utilization within the infant microbiome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008, 105: 18964–18969.CrossRefPubMed 3. Hidaka A, Hamaji Y, Sasaki T, Taniguchi S, Fujimori

M: Exogenous cytosine deaminase gene expression in Bifidobacterium breve I-53–8w for tumor-targeting enzyme/prodrug therapy. Biosci BiotechnolBiochem 2007, 71: 2921–2926.CrossRef 4. Hamaji Y, Fujimori M, Sasaki T, Matsuhashi H, Matsui-Seki K, Shimatani-Shibata Y, Kano Y, Amano J, Taniguchi S: Strong enhancement of recombinant cytosine deaminase activity in Bifidobacterium longum for tumor-targeting enzyme/prodrug therapy. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2007, 71: 874–883.CrossRefPubMed 5. Cinque B, Di Marzio L, Della Riccia DN, Bizzini F, Giuliani M, Fanini D, De Simone C, Cifone MG: Effect of Bifidobacterium infantis on Interferon- gamma- induced keratinocyte apoptosis: 3-MA supplier a potential therapeutic approach to skin immune abnormalities. Int J ImmunopatholPharmacol 2006, 19: 775–786. 6. Deonarain MP, Spooner RA,

Epenetos AA: Genetic delivery of enzymes for cancer therapy. Gene Ther 1995, 2 (4) : 235–244.PubMed 7. Esendagli G, Canpinar G, Yilmaz G, Gunel-Ozcan A, Guc MO, Kansu E, Guc D: Primary tumor cells obtained from MNU-induced mammary find more carcinomas show immune heterogeneity which can be modulated by low-efficiency transfection of CD40L gene. Cancer Biol Ther 2009, 8 (2) : 136–142.CrossRefPubMed 8. Boesten RJ, Schuren FH, de Vos WM: A Bifidobacterium mixed-species microarray for high resolution discrimination between intestinal bifidobacteria. J Microbiol Methods 2009, 76 (3) : 269–277.CrossRefPubMed 9. Yazawa K, Fujimori M, Nakamura T, Sasaki T, Amano J, Kano Y, Taniguchi S: Bifidobacterium longum as a delivery system for gene therapy of chemically induced rat mammary tumors. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2001, 66: 165–170.CrossRefPubMed 10. Davies JM, Sheil B, Shanahan F: Bacterial signalling overrides cytokine signalling and modifies dendritic cell differentiation. Immunology 2009, 128 (1 Suppl) : e805–815.CrossRefPubMed 11. Sasaki T, Fujimori M, Hamaji Y, Hama Y, Ito K, Amano J, Taniguchi S: Genetically engineered Bifidobacterium longum for tumor-targeting enzyme-prodrug therapy of autochthonous mammary tumors in rats.

We hypothesized that any differences in bacterial profile at tumo

We hypothesized that any differences in bacterial profile at tumor sites in contrast to non-tumor sites may indicate its involvement in tumor pathogenesis. We used 16S rRNA based two culture-independent methods, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing to elucidate the total oral microbiota in non-tumor and tumor tissues of OSCC patients. This may facilitate to identify the microbial transition in non-tumor and tumor tissues and understand better the association of bacterial

colonization in OSCC. Methods Subject selection and sampling procedure Twenty oral tissue samples, 10 each from non-tumor and tumor sites of 10 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of selleck kinase inhibitor oral tongue and floor of the mouth, median age 59 years (53% male and 47% female) were www.selleckchem.com/products/VX-770.html obtained from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Tissue Bank, refer Estilo et al. and Singh et al. [41–43] for clinical details. The subjects had a history of smoking and drinking Palbociclib and were not on antibiotics

for a month before sampling. The study was approved by institutional review boards at MSKCC and NYU School of Medicine and written informed consent was obtained from all participants involved in this study. The tissues were collected following guidelines established by Institutional Review Board at MSKCC and tumors were identified according to tumor-node-metastasis classification by American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union International

Cancer Center. For this study, to have a homogenous sample population and to control the effect of confounding factors on bacterial colonization, we used non-tumor tissue from upper aerodigestive tract as a control, resected 5 cm distant from the tumor area or contralateral side of the same OSCC patient and confirmed histologically as normal mucosae [42]. The tissue samples were processed to include all bacteria (on the surface and within the tissue) to detect the total bacterial diversity in oral mucosa. The samples were procured and stored at −80°C till further analysis. DNA very extraction from tissue samples Tissue specimens were pretreated as mentioned earlier by Ji et al. [44]. Briefly, the tissues were suspended in 500 μL of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), vortexed for 30 seconds and sonicated for 5 and 10 seconds respectively. Proteinase K (2.5 μg/mL) was added for digestion and incubated overnight at 55°C, if required, homogenized with sterile disposable pestle and vortexed. The bacterial genomic DNA was extracted by modified Epicentre protocol (Epicentre Biotechnologies, Madison, WI) and purified with phenol-chloroform extraction [45]. Samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by NanoDrop ND 1000 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies Inc., Wilmington, DE). All samples were stored at −20°C till further analysis. For PCR assays, the DNA concentration was adjusted to 20 ng/μL.

Trends Biotechnol 18:506–511 doi:10 ​1016/​S0167-7799(00)01511-0

Trends Biotechnol 18:506–511. doi:10.​1016/​S0167-7799(00)01511-0 CrossRefPubMed Grossman AR (2000) Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to its nutrient environment. Protist 151:201–224. doi:10.​1078/​1434-4610-00020 CrossRefPubMed Happe T, Kaminski A (2002) Differential regulation of the Fe-hydrogenase during anaerobic adaptation in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Eur J Biochem 269:1022–1032CrossRefPubMed Happe T, Naber JD (1993) Isolation, characterization and N-terminal amino acid sequence of hydrogenase from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Eur J Biochem 214:475–481. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1432-1033.​1993.​tb17944.​x

CrossRefPubMed Happe T, Mosler B, Naber JD (1994) Selleck Epoxomicin Induction, localization and metal selleck chemicals llc content of hydrogenase

in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Eur J Biochem 222:769–775. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1432-1033.​1994.​tb18923.​x CrossRefPubMed Harris EH (1989) The Chlamydomonas sourcebook. Academic Press Inc, San Diego Harris EH (2009) The Chlamydomonas sourcebook (second edition). Introduction to Chlamydomonas and Its Laboratory Use, vol 1. Academic Press, San Diego Hemschemeier A (2005) The anaerobic life of the photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Photofermentation and hydrogen production upon sulphur deprivation. PhD-thesis, Ruhr-University of Bochum. http://​www-brs.​ub.​ruhr-uni-bochum.​de/​netahtml/​HSS/​Diss/​HemschemeierAnja​Mdivi1 mw Christine/​diss.​pdf Hemschemeier A, Fouchard S, Cournac L, Peltier G, Happe T (2008) Hydrogen production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: an elaborate interplay of electron sources and sinks. Planta 227:397–407. doi:10.​1007/​s00425-007-0626-8 CrossRefPubMed Ito K, Ohgami T (1992) Hydrogen detection based on coloration of anodic tungsten oxide film. Appl Phys Lett 60:938–940.

doi:10.​1063/​1.​106467 Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) CrossRef Jouanneau Y, Kelley BC, Berlier Y, Lespinat PA, Vignais PM (1980) Continuous monitoring, by mass spectrometry, of H2-production and recycling in Rhodopseudomonas capsulate. J Bacteriol 143:628–636PubMed Kamp C, Silakov A, Winkler M, Reijerse EJ, Lubitz W, Happe T (2008) Isolation and first EPR characterization of the [FeFe]-hydrogenases from green algae. Biochim Biophys Acta 1777:410–416. doi:10.​1016/​j.​bbabio.​2008.​02.​002 CrossRefPubMed Kessler E (1974) Hydrogenase, photoreduction and anaerobic growth of algae. In: Steward WDP (ed) Algal physiology and biochemistry. Blackwell, Oxford Kindle KL (1990) High frequency nuclear transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:1228–1232CrossRefPubMed King PW, Posewitz MC, Ghirardi ML, Seibert M (2006) Functional studies of [FeFe] hydrogenase maturation in an Escherichia coli biosynthetic system. J Bacteriol 188:2163–2172. doi:10.​1128/​JB.​188.​6.​2163-2172.​2006 CrossRefPubMed Kitajima M, Butler WL (1975) Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and primary photochemistry in chloroplasts by dibromothymoquinone. Biochim Biophys Acta 376:105–115. doi:10.

Mater Lett 2007, 61:4435–4437 CrossRef 26 Ren F, Jiang CZ, Liu C

Mater Lett 2007, 61:4435–4437.CrossRef 26. Ren F, Jiang CZ, Liu C, Wang JB, Oku T: Controlling the morphology of Ag nanoclusters by ion implantation to different doses and subsequent annealing. Phys Rev Lett 2006,97(165501):1–4. 27. Biteen JS, Lewis NS, Atwater HA: Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence. Appl Phys Lett 2006,88(131109):1–3. 28. Maier SA, Atwater HA: Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy

in metal/dielectric CHIR99021 structures. J Appl Phys 2005,98(011101):1–10. 29. Chen CW, Wang CH, Wei CM, Chen YF: Tunable emission based on the composite of Au nanoparticles and CdSe quantum dots deposited on elastomeric film. Appl Phys Lett 2009,94(071906):1–3. 30. Al-Ekabi H, Serpone OICR-9429 price N: Kinetic studies in heterogeneous photocatalysis. 1. Photocatalytic degradation of chlorinated phenols in aerated aqueous solutions over TiO2 supported on a glass matrix. J Phys Chem 1988, 92:5726–5731.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions JX participated in the material

preparation and data analysis and drafted the manuscript. XX conceived and co-wrote the paper. AS, FR, WW, GC, SZ, ZD, and FM participated in the sample characterization. CJ participated in its design and coordination. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Gold nanoparticle (Au NP), being the most stable mono-metallic nanoparticle, promises to be a key Cobimetinib material and building block for newer technologies in the twenty-first century. Gold in its bulk state is regarded as a noble metal and is very unreactive because of its completely filled d-band [1]. However, at nanoscale, it is proving to be an important material for catalysis owing to its shape, size and crystal structure arrangement [2]. Due to this new set of properties, it has found wide-scale Fossariinae application in optics, electronics, catalysis, fabrication and biomedical utilities [3]. Generally speaking, physical methods of producing gold nanoparticles involve heating of gold at reduced pressure

to generate gold vapour, while chemical synthesis requires a reducing agent (generally citrate) followed by addition of a stabilizing agent [4–7]. However, these chemical methods deliver at the cost of expensive reducing and capping agents and toxic solvents along with tedious process control. To overcome these issues, several biogenic synthesis processes have been reported owing to the constant need for cost-effective eco-friendly synthesis of Au NPs. Microbial systems have found an important role in nanoparticle production due to their natural mechanism for detoxification of metallic ions through reduction which can be achieved extracellularly or intracellularly through bioaccumulation, precipitation, biomineralization and biosorption. Ogi et al. [8] showed gold nanoparticle formation in the presence of H2 gas pumped with Shewanella algae cell extract.

Certain E coli clones with specific virulence factors


Certain E. coli clones with specific virulence factors

are involved in extraintestinal infections the so called extraintestinal pathoghenic E. coli (ExPEC), and these bacteria often cause both urinary tract infections and septicemia. Furthermore, specific E. coli are involved in childhood diarrhea, (enteropathogenic E. coli), tourist diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), and recently, bloody diarrhea associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (verotoxin-producing E. coli). In the 1970′s, it was found that hemolytic E. coli were linked to active UC, although it was believed that the hemolytic E. coli were innocent bystanders, and their presence in the colon was assisted by the inflammation but did not cause it [6]. On the other hand, it has been shown that apathogenic E. coli prevents relapse of UC just as well as mesalazine [7]. Furthermore, E. coli has been linked to CD, since an abundance of specific adherent-invasive E. coli was found in resected ileum from patients Selleck LY2835219 with CD, compared to non inflamed ileum resected due to other causes [8, 9]. Very recently, it was demonstrated by ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis that enterobacteriaceae are more abundant in tissue samples from patients with IBD compared to controls, and after culture, specific phylogenetic groups of E. coli were found to be more frequent among Cilengitide clinical trial patients with UC and CD [10]. Moreover, it has been shown that E. coli are very predominant

in inflamed mucosa of patients with UC, and that these strains based on 16 S rRNA PCR are “”active”" and overrepresented in comparison with the microbiota of healthy controls, who generally had a higher biodiversity of the active microbiota [11]. In addition, an exuberant inflammatory response to E. coli has been demonstrated among patients with UC [12]. The aim of our study was to characterize possible differences in phylogenetic group, serotype, ExPEC

genes and virulence between E. coli isolated from patients with active IBD, patients with inactive disease and healthy controls, as well as to examine whether multilocus sequence learn more typing (MLST) could further Janus kinase (JAK) distinguish between these E. coli. MLST is considered the most stable and appropriate of currently available molecular typing techniques for long term epidemiology and for the identification of bacterial lineages that have an increased propensity to cause disease [13]. Results Fecal samples were collected from 18 patients with IBD with present or past involvement of the left side of the colon and from 10 healthy controls. In both patients and controls, a sigmoidoscopy was performed. Ten patients were found to have a non-inflamed mucosa, whereas 8 had clear inflammation in the sigmoid colon. More detailed characteristics of patients are presented in Table 1. A total of 26 E. coli strains were isolated from study subjects. From 3 patients and 1 control, no E. coli could be isolated. From one patient with active IBD and one patient with inactive IBD two different E.

A 1,468 bp DNA fragment corresponding to the downstream region of

A 1,468 bp DNA fragment corresponding to the downstream region of ohrR was amplified using the primers (AGCTCTAGAGCACCTGCAG; introduces an XbaI restriction site in place of ohrR stop codon) and (CAGCGCGTGTGGCGGCG). This amplicon was digested with XbaI and NsiI (genuine site) and cloned into pK18mobsacB vector [51] between the XbaI and PstI sites, giving pD3001. pD3083 and pD3001

were linearised with XbaI and ligated in click here order to assemble ohrR-upstream and -downstream sequences. Then pGEMTeasy vector was deleted through an EcoRI digest, giving pD4116, and the GmR cassette of p34SGm [52] was inserted into the XbaI site, giving pD4244. This final construction carries the ohr-ohrR region where the ohrR open reading frame is replaced by a GmR cassette; it was GS-4997 price introduced into S. meliloti Rm1021 strain by triparental mating and recombinants were selected for on MSY medium containing gentamycin and sucrose. Double crossing over recombinants were identified as neomycin sensitive strains and confirmed by PCR. The mutation

was transduced into S. meliloti Rm1021 strain using ΦM12 [53], yielding R6.48. Inactivation of ohr A 4 kb chromosomal DNA fragment containing ohr and ohrR genes was amplified by PCR using the primers (GATCGGCCTCGACCCATACG) and (CAGCGCGTGTGGCGGCG) and cloned into pGEMTeasy vector. The insert was recovered with EcoRI and transferred to the same site on pK18mobsacB vector. The Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) ohr open reading frame was then inactivated Dasatinib nmr by introducing into the unique NotI site the GmR cassette from pBBR1-MCS5 digested with NotI. The resulting plasmid pD8657 was introduced into Rm1021 strain and double crossing events were selected as before and confirmed by PCR. The mutation was transduced into Rm1021 strain using ΦM12, yielding R8.39. Construction of an ohr::GmR , ΔohrR strain pD4116 carries the entire

ohr sequence and a deletion of ohrR. The ohr gene was disrupted by introducing in its unique NotI site the GmR resistance cassette from pBBR1-MCS5 recovered through a NotI digest. The resulting pD5333was conjugated into Rm1021 strain and double crossing overs were selected as previously described and confirmed by PCR. Transduction of the mutations into Rm1021strain yielded R7.15. Construction of ohr::lacZ, ohrR::uidA into a wild type genetic background The 4 kb chromosomal fragment amplified for ohr inactivation contains two SalI sites near the 3′end of ohr and ohrR genes respectively. It was cleaved with SalI and the 980 bp DNA fragment containing the 5′ regions of ohr and ohrR was introduced into the XhoI site of pTH1705 vector (not replicative in S. meliloti) [54]. In the resulting pD5455 plasmid two transcriptional fusions are generated: ohr::lacZ and ohrR::uidA. pD5455 was introduced into Rm1021 strain by triparental mating.

Our results showed that Twist expresse in human BT tissues was si

Our results showed that Twist expresse in human BT tissues was significantly correlated to the tumor stage, grade and progression (P = 0.000, P = 0.000 and P = 0.021, respectively);Snail was significantly correlated to nodal CFTRinh-172 in vivo involvement (P = 0.000), but Snail was not involved in bladder tumor differentiation, stage, grade and progression;Slug was only significantly correlated to nodal involvement (P = 0.012). It would seem unnecessary to evaluate new progression marker in the very aggressive group of invasive BT of which the prognosis is pejorative, but the comparison of the molecular profile between superficial and

invasive BT could allow individualizing a molecular marker of interest in order to treat earlier and more efficiently Selleckchem DMXAA the high-risk of progression superficial bladder tumor. However, it has been demonstrated Trichostatin A in human tumor cell lines that the forced expression of E-cadherin was not sufficient to reverse the process in Slug, Snail or Twist-expressing cells, and this result supports

that Slug, Snail or Twist might modulate other important signaling pathways involved in tumor progression and metastasis development independently of E-cadherin expression[38–42]. Then, it strengthens the argument to justify both Slug or Snail or Twist expression and potential downstream targets as E-cadherin expression evaluation. It has already been demonstrated that Slug, Snail or Twist overexpression was associated with poor outcome and shorter survival in patients with solid tumors [31–34]. Our findings support this hypothesis as E-cadherin and Twist expression were associated with poor survival both in univariate and multivariate

analyses of all factors Branched chain aminotransferase that influenced survival. Franck Bruyere et al.[43]have found that high expression of Snail in superficial bladder tumors significantly predicts tumor recurrence in these patients. But we did not find any relationship between the expression of Snail and tumor recurrence. That we had a different way to evaluate the immunohistochemistry results may be the reasons. The univariate analysis showed that high Snail expression, histologic grading, CIS and E-cadherin(P = 0.005)were statistically significant risk factors. The backward stepwise multivariate analysis showed that high Snail and Slug expression and E-cadherin were statistically significant independent risk factors. One mechanism of the link between Slug, Snail or Twist expression and poor prognosis may be the reducing of E-cadherin expression allowing cancer cells to migrate but it is probably not the only one[38–42]. Moreover, in our study, we noticed that some patients with high-risk superficial bladder tumors that High expressed Slug, Snail or Twist displayed distant metastasis within 2 years after initial diagnosis even if a cystectomy was performed.

10 1016/0022-3468(91)91033-UPubMedCrossRef 15 Henry MCW, Moss RL

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