Studies evaluating testosterone treatment of older men with low <

Studies evaluating testosterone treatment of older men with low U0126 MAPK inhibitor testosterone levels are limited, but they suggest some increase in fat free mass, some decrease in fat mass, and some increase in bone density of the lumbar spine and femoral neck.

Conclusion: The Testosterone

Trial should provide definitive information regarding the potential benefits of TRT in men = 65 years of age. If efficacy is confirmed, we will still need more information regarding the risks of TRT in older men.”
“Contents This study was conducted to explore the influencing factors of ova in vitro fertilization (IVF) and transfer of the fertilized ova into the oviduct of recipient hens. The efficiency of fertilization was compared using three aspects: (i) the different time of ova collection and transfer,

(ii) egg-laying period of recipient hen; and (iii) semen volume. The following results are observed: 72%, 40% and 0% of ova were found in ovarian sac in 30 approximate to 40min, 50 approximate to 60min and more than 90min post-oviposition, respectively; 20%, 18%, 14% and 5.8% of ova were fertilized with 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0ml semen, respectively; and 33% and 100% of healthy chickens were hatched from fertile ova with 0.1 and 0.5ml of semen, respectively. All oocytes obtained from ovary and mid-oviduct were unfertilized. Embryos were transferred into recipient hens 30min +/- 10min post-oviposition, and 70% of shelled eggs were produced. There were no eggs produced in Selleckchem GSK3326595 the other transfer times. This demonstrated that live chicken can be obtained by IVF of ova collected PXD101 shortly after oviposition. It was important that the ovum was transferred into the oviduct infundibulum of recipient hens immediately or shortly after oviposition.”
“Background: Odds ratios (OR) significantly overestimate associations between risk factors and common outcomes. The estimation of relative risks (RR) or prevalence ratios (PR) has represented a statistical challenge in

multivariate analysis and, furthermore, some researchers do not have access to the available methods. Objective: To propose and evaluate a new method for estimating RR and PR by logistic regression.

Methods: A provisional database was designed in which events were duplicated but identified as non-events. After, a logistic regression was performed and effect measures were calculated, which were considered RR estimations. This method was compared with binomial regression, Cox regression with robust variance and ordinary logistic regression in analyses with three outcomes of different frequencies.

Results: ORs estimated by ordinary logistic regression progressively overestimated RRs as the outcome frequency increased. RRs estimated by Cox regression and the method proposed in this article were similar to those estimated by binomial regression for every outcome. However, confidence intervals were wider with the proposed method.

2 We further find that inductor angles in the range 15 degrees-2

2. We further find that inductor angles in the range 15 degrees-25 degrees lead to joint side faces that are close to vertical. These findings are then verified experimentally by placing a liquid metal drop in a purpose built inductor of triangular cross-section. We find a good agreement

between the theoretical prediction of our two-dimensional Repotrectinib manufacturer model and the real three-dimensional drop. For the highest magnetic Bond number our generator could deliver, Bo(m)=20.19, we achieved a drop aspect ratio of 2.73. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3409075]“
“Objective-To evaluate the technical, short-term, and long-term outcomes in cats with benign ureteral obstructions treated by means of double-pigtail ureteral stent placement.

Design-Retrospective case series.

Animals-69 cats (79 ureters).

Procedures-The diagnosis of benign ureteral obstruction was made via abdominal ultrasonography, radiography, and ureteropyelography. Fedratinib clinical trial Ureteral stent placement was attempted endoscopically, surgically, or both, with fluoroscopic guidance. The medical records were reviewed for pre-, intra-, and postoperative data; complications; and outcome.

Results-69 cats (79 ureters) had stent placement attempted for various causes:

ureterolithiasis (56/79 [71%]), stricture (10/79 [13%]), both ureterolithiasis and stricture (12/79 [15%]), or a purulent plug (1/79 [1%]). Stent placement was successful in 75 of 79 ureters (95%). Median number of stones per ureter was 4 (range, CDK inhibitor drugs 0 to > 50), and 67 of 79 (85%) had concurrent nephrolithiasis. Preoperative azotemia was present in 95% (66/69) of cats (median creatinine concentration, 5.3 mg/dL [range, 1.1 to 25.8 mg/dL]), and 71% (49/69) remained azotemic (median, 2.1 mg/dL [range, 1.0 to 11.8 mg/dL]) after successful surgery. Procedure-related, postoperative (< 7 days), short-term

(7 to 30 days), and long-term (> 30 days) complications occurred in 8.7% (6/69; 7/79 ureters), 9.1% (6/66), 9.8% (6/61), and 33% (20/60) of cats, respectively; most of these complications were minor and associated with intermittent dysuria or the need for ureteral stent exchange. The perioperative mortality rate was 7.5% (5/69), and no deaths were procedure related. The median survival time was 498 days (range, 2 to > 1,278 days). For patients with a renal cause of death, median survival time was > 1,262 days, with only 14 of 66 cats (21%) dying of chronic kidney disease. Nineteen (27%) cats needed a stent exchange (stricture in-growth [n = 10], migration [4], ureteritis [2], dysuria [2], pyelonephritis [1] or reflux [1]). No patient died of the procedure or recurrent ureteral obstruction.

(c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Study Design Case r

(c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Study Design. Case report.

Objective. To report our results of a sacroplasty technique, using 3-dimensional C-arm CT for the treatment of sacral body fracture.

Summary of

Background Data. Sacroplasty may provide symptomatic relief and hasten recovery in the treatment of sacral insufficiency fractures. To our knowledge, there is no case report in the literature describing the application of sacroplasty for the treatment of sacral body fracture. We present a case of patient who had percutaneous sacroplasty for sacral body fracture and sacral alar fracture under 3-dimensional C-arm CT guidance and discuss the clinical results and technical considerations.

Methods. The procedure included a standard prone positioning of the patient and the area to be treated was prepared in a strictly sterile manner, and a local

anesthesia was used. After a small skin incision, an 11-gauge vertebroplasty needle was positioned HSP990 solubility dmso at the entry point in the sacrum. Then, the needle was inclined, directed, and advanced from the posterior aspect to the anterior aspect of the sacral vertebral body. PMMA cement was incrementally introduced in 0.5 mL aliquots and the volume of PMMA cement injected was total 4 mL. Precise needle placement and PMMA cement injection was performed under the 3-dimensional C-arm CT system and the right sacral alar region was performed in a similar manner.

Results. There were no peri-procedural complications occurred and the patient experienced an immediate and substantial pain relief that was persistent during a 12-month follow-up.

Conclusions. 3-dimensional C-arm CT-guided sacroplasty is a safe, practical, and effective

solution to treatment of sacral body fracture.”
“Many anticancer drugs are obtained from phytochemicals and natural products. However, some phytochemicals have mutagenic effects. Safrole, a component of Piper betle inflorescence, 3-MA nmr has been reported to be a carcinogen. We have previously reported that safrole induced apoptosis in human oral cancer cells in vitro and inhibited the human oral tumor xenograft growth in vivo. Until now, there is no information addressing if safrole promotes immune responses in vivo. To evaluate whether safrole modulated immune function, BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with murine myelomonocytic WEHI-3 leukemia cells to establish leukemia and then were treated with or without safrole at 4 and 16 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed after 2 weeks post-treatment with safrole for examining the immune cell populations, phagocytosis of macrophages and the natural killer (NK) cells’ cytotoxicity. Results indicated that safrole increased the body weight, and decreased the weights of spleen and liver in leukemic mice. Furthermore, safrole promoted the activities of macrophages phagocytosis and NK cells’ cytotoxicity in leukemic mice when compared with untreated leukemic mice.

On UV-on days, UV lights and mixing fans were turned on in the wa

On UV-on days, UV lights and mixing fans were turned on in the ward, and a third animal enclosure alone received ward air. TB infection in guinea pigs was defined by monthly tuberculin skin tests. All guinea pigs underwent autopsy to test for TB disease, defined by characteristic autopsy changes or by the culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from organs. 35% (106/304) of guinea pigs in the control group developed TB infection, and this was reduced to 14% (43/303) by ionizers, and to 9.5% (29/307) by UV lights (both

p < 0.0001 compared with the control group). TB disease was confirmed in 8.6% (26/304) of control group animals, and this was reduced to 4.3% (13/303) by ionizers, and to 3.6% (11/307) by UV lights (both p < 0.03 compared with the control group). Time-to-event analysis demonstrated that TB infection HIF inhibitor was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 27; p < 0.0001) and by UV lights (log-rank 46; p < 0.0001). Time-to-event analysis also demonstrated that TB disease

was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 3.7; p=0.055) and by UV lights (log-rank 5.4; p=0.02). An alternative analysis using an airborne infection model demonstrated that ionizers prevented 60% of TB infection and 51% of TB disease, and that UV lights prevented 70% of TB infection and 54% of TB disease. In all analysis strategies, UV lights tended to be more protective than ionizers.


Upper-room UV lights and negative air ionization each prevented most airborne TB transmission detectable by guinea pig air sampling. Provided there is adequate mixing of room air, upper-room UV light is an effective, see more low-cost intervention for use in TB infection RepSox mouse control in high-risk clinical settings.”
“A large body of evidence from basic science, epidemiologic observations and population-based studies demonstrates that aspirin, as well as other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, has a chemopreventive effect on several cancer types and, more specifically, in CRC. This

protective effect includes prevention of adenoma recurrence and reduction of CRC incidence and mortality. Although the protective effect appears to depend on the dose and the drug, the most important factor is the duration of exposure. However, the lowest effective dose, treatment duration, specific target populations, and effects on survival have not been defined yet. More important, data on the risk-benefit profile for cancer prevention are insufficient and, accordingly, no definitive recommendation can be made at present.

In this article, besides reviewing current knowledge of the mechanisms involved in aspirin-based CRC chemoprevention, we will be focused on randomized controlled studies assessing its efficacy in high-, moderate- and average-risk populations. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To compare the accuracy of several magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based methods for hepatic proton-density fat fraction (FF) estimation at 3.

All three groups

were subdivided into two subgroups based

All three groups

were subdivided into two subgroups based Nutlin-3 datasheet on prostate volume: Subgroup 1 >20 cc and <50 cc, and subgroup 2, between 50 and 80 cc. Patients preoperative, perioperative, and follow-up data were recorded and analyzed. Results: The baseline characteristics of the three groups and subgroups 1 and 2 were comparable. The number of patients in whom postoperative irrigation was instituted, amount of fluid used for postoperative irrigation, duration of postoperative irrigation, postoperative hemoglobin concentration, and duration of catheterization were significantly in favor of group C patients except for the mean operative time, which was significantly longer among them. All three groups demonstrated an increase in International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life score, and maximum flow rate and decrease in prostate volume and postvoid residual urine GM6001 price at 12-month follow-up. The mean Intgernational Index of Erectile Function-5 score did not show improvement in any group. The need for blood transfusion and clot retention necessitating intervention were significantly lower among group C patients compared with group A, whereas these values

for group B patients did not reach significant level compared with either group A or C. These complications were comparable among subgroup 1 patients, whereas subgroup 2 patients had shown results in favor of subgroup C2. Conclusion: Monopolar TURP, bipolar selleck products TURP, and PVP are equally efficacious at 12-month follow-up. PVP has added advantages of lesser blood loss, lesser need for blood transfusion (especially for prostate volume 50-80 cc), and shorter catheterization time.”
“BACKGROUND: Xylitol is a sugar alcohol (polyalcohol) with many interesting properties for pharmaceutical and food products. It is currently produced by a chemical process, which has some disadvantages such

as high energy requirement. Therefore microbiological production of xylitol has been studied as an alternative, but its viability is dependent on optimisation of the fermentation variables. Among these, aeration is fundamental, because xylitol is produced only under adequate oxygen availability. In most experiments with xylitol-producing yeasts, low oxygen transfer volumetric coefficient (K(L)a) values are used to maintain microaerobic conditions. However, in the present study the use of relatively high K(L)a values resulted in high xylitol production. The effect of aeration was also evaluated via the profiles of xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol clehydrogenase (XD) activities during the experiments.

RESULTS: The highest XR specific activity (1.45 +/- 0.21 U mg(protein)(-1)) was achieved during the experiment with the lowest K(L)a value (12 h(-1)), while the highest XD specific activity (0.19 +/- 0.

PGIP activity was concentration dependent, constitutively present

PGIP activity was concentration dependent, constitutively present, and not related to resistance nor susceptibility of tomato recombinant inbred lines to R. solanacearum. The proteinaceous character of the

inhibiting component was inferred from ammonium sulphate precipitation. For the first time a plant PGIP activity against a bacterial pathogen is reported. Observations support that endo- and exo-PG synthesis is governed by a sensitive regulatory network, which, in interaction with PGIP and cell wall degradation products, leads to generation or avoidance of elicitor-active oligomers, and, thus, may contribute to the development of the compatible or incompatible interaction. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Induction of mixed allogeneic chimerism is a promising approach for achieving donor-specific tolerance, thereby obviating the need for life-long immunosuppression for solid organ allograft acceptance. In mice receiving a low dose (3Gy) of total body irradiation, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation combined with anti-CD154 tolerizes peripheral CD4 and CD8 T cells, allowing achievement of mixed chimerism with specific tolerance to donor. With this approach, peripheral CD8 T-cell tolerance requires recipient MHC class II, CD4 T cells, B cells and DCs. Recipient-type B cells from chimeras MK-2206 clinical trial that

were tolerant to donor still promoted CD8 T-cell tolerance, but their role could not be replaced by donor-type B cells. Using recipients whose B cells or DCs specifically lack MHC class I and/or class II or lack CD80 and CD86, we demonstrate that dendritic cells (DCs) must express CD80/86 and either MHC class I or class II to promote CD8 tolerance. In contrast, B cells, though required, did not need to express MHC class I or class II or CD80/86 to promote CD8 tolerance. Moreover, see more recipient IDO and IL-10 were not required. Thus, antigen presentation

by recipient DCs and not by B cells is critical for peripheral alloreactive CD8 T cell tolerance.”
“Study Design. Prospective analysis of 600 extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) approach procedures for intraoperative and perioperative complications.

Objective. To delineate and describe complications in a large, prospective series of minimally invasive lateral lumbar fusion procedures (XLIF).

Summary of Background Data. While some small series of lateral lumbar fusion have discussed complications, no results from large studies have been reported.

Methods. A total of 600 patients were treated with a lateral approach to fusion (XLIF) for degenerative spinal conditions. Data were collected prospectively on all patients and analyzed for demographic, diagnostic, and hospitalization information to identify operative and early postoperative complications.

Loss of MtNST1 function resulted in reduced lignin content, assoc

Loss of MtNST1 function resulted in reduced lignin content, associated with reduced expression of most lignin biosynthetic genes, and a smaller reduction in cell wall polysaccharide content, associated with reduced expression of putative cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthetic genes. Acid pre-treatment and cellulase digestion released significantly more sugars from cell walls of nst1 mutants compared with the wild type. We discuss the implications of these findings for the development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as a dedicated bioenergy crop.”
“The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/dl) among patients with

fibromyalgia or muscle pain in a musculoskeletal clinic in the United Arab Emirates. Consecutive this website patients who were diagnosed with fibromyalgia and/or non-specific musculoskeletal pain (ICD-9 729.1) were screened for vitamin D deficiency. Patients were seen at follow-up after treatment with vitamin D was given. Improvement was assessed by a simple questionnaire. Patients (139) with muscle pain were seen in 2007. Average age was 40 +/- year; 95% were female; 69 (49%) were Arab, of whom 92% were veiled; 43 (30%) Indian of whom 11% were veiled; 23 (16%) were Caucasian; and MLN4924 in vivo four were East Asian (3%) and all wore western clothes. One hundred three (74%) of these

patients had a low vitamin D level. Vitamin D deficiency was most common among Arab patients (86%) and Indo-Pakistani (87%) and least common among the Caucasians (8%) and was equally prevalent among veiled CGP-57148B and non-veiled patients. Treatment resulted in clinical improvement in 90% of patients. Non-specific muscle pains among Arab and Indian-Pakistani populations

may indicate vitamin D deficiency, and prompt treatment can result in resolution of symptoms.”
“Background: Despite the use of contemporary total ankle arthroplasty implant designs, clinical outcomes of total ankle arthroplasty continue to lag behind those of other joint replacement procedures. Disruption of the extraosseous talar blood supply at the time of ankle replacement may be a factor contributing to talar component subsidence a common mechanism of early failure following ankle replacement. We evaluated the risk of injury to specific extraosseous arteries supplying the talus associated with specific total ankle arthroplasty implants.

Methods: Sixteen fresh-frozen through-knee cadaveric specimens were injected with latex and barium sulfate distal to the popliteal trifurcation to visualize the arteries. Four specimens each were prepared for implantation of four contemporary total ankle arthroplasty systems: Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement (STAR), INBONE II, Salto Talaris, and Trabecular Metal Total Ankle (TMTA).

“The influence of gentamicin and erythromycin on glucose e

“The influence of gentamicin and erythromycin on glucose excursion after oral glucose loads was evaluated in twelve New Zealand rabbits, weighting between 1278 and 1861 g. The rabbits were randomized into three equal groups and were given either 5 mg/kg of Gentamicin i.m., 50 mg/kg of Erythromycin per oral or 0.9% Saline. One hour later, all the GSK3235025 rabbits were given 2.5 g/kg of glucose per oral in 5 mls

of 0.9% saline. Blood glucose levels were determined just before oral glucose loads, then every 1 h for 4 h, using commercial glucometer. Gentamicin pre-treatment significantly increased the peak glucose level (1 h) and significantly reduced the half-life of the rise in glucose level compared to controls. On the other hand, erythromycin pre-treatment caused significant increase in the glucose levels at 3 and 4 h while the peak glucose level (1 h) was not significantly

different. The perturbation of glycemic response to glucose load revealed by both drugs may be clinically important in persons undergoing screening for glycemia and patients under care.”
“(Fe(50)Co(50))(97)V(2)Nb(1) nanoparticles were synthesized in an induction plasma torch and oxidized isochronally at temperatures between room temperature (RT) and 900 degrees C. The particles exhibited three stages of oxidation present at different temperatures. The initial oxide layer was nearly Co-free, beginning at 3 nm at RT, and Co appeared Selleckchem Torin 2 to oxidize separately from the iron. Iron cations were determined to be the mobile species during oxidation, yielding a progressively more Co-rich core as oxidation progressed, decreasing from an average diameter of 42 to 25 nm, while the oxide tripled in size. At 350 degrees C, the particles exhibited a less dense core, and at 900 degrees C the particles were observed to have changed morphology completely with some sintering, forming completely oxidized particles with an average diameter three times the as received size. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3334197]“

this study, we extended application of face transplantation model in rat by incorporation of vascularized INCB028050 datasheet premaxilla, and nose with infraorbital and facial nerves for evaluation of allotransplanted sensory and motor nerve functional recovery. In group I (n = 3) the dissection technique is studied. In group II (n = 5) isotransplantations were performed. In group III (n = 5) allotransplantations were performed under Cyclosporin A monotherapy. Grafts; composed of nose, lower lip, and premaxilla; were dissected. Infraorbital nerve and facial nerve were included into the transplant. A heterotopic transplantation was performed to inguinal region of recipient. Nerve coaptations were performed between infraorbital-sapheneous nerve and facial-femoral nerve. CT scan, somatosensory-evoked potential testing (SSEP), motor-evoked potential testing (MEP), and microangiography were used for evaluation.

The ceramic yield of allyhydridopolycarbosilane is about 60% and

The ceramic yield of allyhydridopolycarbosilane is about 60% and that of ethynylhydridopolycarbosilane is over 75%, indicating that the liquid polycarbosilanes have great potential to be promising precursors to SiC. Moreover, the compositions of the polycarbosilanes and the final ceramics can be tailored by controlling the amount Of the starting materials. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 113:1611-1618, 2009″
“We observe an intense ion pulse from nanocomposite thermite reactions, which we temporally probe using a recently developed temperature jump/time of flight mass spectrometer. These ion pulses are observed to be much shorter in duration than the overall thermite reaction time. Ion

ejection appears in stages as positive ions are ejected prior to nanocomposite thermite ignition, and ignition of the thermite mixtures Copanlisib leads to a second ionization step which is primarily dominated by negative species. The positive species are identified from mass spectrometric measurements and the results show that the positive ion species are comprised of Na ions with minor species of Al and K ions. This observation can be explained by a diffusion based ion-current mechanism, in which strong Al ion diffusion flux formed through the oxide shell, and the surface Na and K ions from salt contaminations are ejected by the strong electrostatic repulsion. The fact that the negative ionization step occurs

during the ignition event suggests a strong relation between the nanocomposite thermite reaction and the negative ionization process. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3225907]“
“Calcium-shellac microspheres with encapsulated carbamide peroxide (CP) were made by emulsification to generate an emulsion including shellac ammonium salt aqueous Solution with soluble CP dispersed in Sunflower oil with calcium chloride powders, followed by gelation between shellac and calcium. The effects of formulation and processing conditions on the encapsulation efficiency of CP, the physical, structural, JNK-IN-8 research buy and mechanical properties of calcium-shellac microspheres, including

size, inner structure, and mechanical strength, were investigated. The sizes of the prepared microspheres were in the range of 10-100 mu m, depending on the agitation speed used in the emulsification process. The morphology of calcium-shellac microspheres was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and image analysis. Their inner structure was evaluated using X-ray microcomputed tomography, and their mechanical strength was determined by a micromanipulation technique. The Structure and mechanical strength of the microspheres were compared with those bigger calcium-shellac beads (1-3 mm in diameter) made by extrusion followed by gelation (Xue and Zhang, J Microencapsul 2008, 25, 523), and clear contrast in the properties between the two preparation methods has been found. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

All rights reserved “
“In this paper, 0 94Bi(0 5)Na(0) (5)Ti

All rights reserved.”
“In this paper, 0.94Bi(0.5)Na(0).(5)TiO(3)-0.06BaTiO(3) (BNBT6) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been prepared using the gelcasting technology. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of these ceramics have been

investigated. The specimens were sintered at 1100-1200 degrees C after grain-oriented under the pulsed strong magnetic field during the solidification of the green bodies. Compared with the BNBT6 samples without applying magnetic field, the ceramics selleck chemicals textured by applying 5 T pulsed magnetic field has a coercive field with reduction of 400 V/mm, which makes the polarization process easier. Meanwhile, it is noted that the orientation degree increases with increasing sintering temperature, whereas the piezoelectric constant and electromechanical coupling coefficients are improved. If SrTiO(3) seed grain is introduced,

the orientation degree can reach 0.70 and the relative density of the sintered ceramics is up to 96%. The dielectric properties are anisotropic in directions vertical and parallel to the applied magnetic field. At around 180 degrees C, the dielectric constant in the direction vertical to the magnetic field is three times of that in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. And the dielectric loss in the direction vertical to the magnetic field is also higher than that in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3486474]“
“Helicobacter pylori infection learn more is one of the most common chronic bacterial

infections in humans, The association of other Helicobacter spp, with extragastric diseases in animals is well established, and a role of these bacteria in human liver disease is becoming clearer. Several case-control studies have reported possible associations of Helicobacter spp. with various liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma, which is the fifth most common type of carcinoma among men worldwide, and the eighth most common among women. Thus, it 4EGI-1 purchase is important to understand molecular mechanisms that may lead to hepatotoxicity or hepatocellular dysfunction in which Helicobacter spp. may play a role in inducing malignant transformation of liver cells.”
“BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of the lung allocation score (LAS) on mortality among highly urgent (HU) and urgent (U) lung transplant (LTx) candidates in Eurotransplant (ET) and to identify useful additional parameters (LASplus).

METHODS: All adult LTx candidates for whom a first request for HU or U status was made in 2008 in ET were included (N = 317). Patients were followed until LTx, death on the waiting list (WL), delisting, or closure date (i.e., January 10, 2010). The relationship between the LAS/LASplus and waiting list, post-transplant, and overall mortality was assessed with a multivariate regression model. The LAS and LASplus were decomposed into their basic waitlist and post-transplant components.