In the Philippines, based on a study done in 2006, prevalence rat

In the Philippines, based on a study done in 2006, prevalence rates increased 4-fold over a 10-year period. It represents a spectrum of symptoms that vary from typical reflux symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation to dysphagia. It has also been considered a risk factor for esophageal cancer. GERD is generally a symptom-based diagnosis. Acid accounts for most of the irritation in GERD and Acid-suppressants, mainly proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) remain to be the mainstay of treatment. However, most PPIs have short half-lives and slow onset of action with gradual acid suppression owing to their pharmacologic

Temozolomide clinical trial properties. Peak acid suppression among all PPIs range from 6–11 days. In an Emergency room set-up, immediate relief from GERD symptoms is of paramount importance to suffering patients. This study aims to determine if an alginate (GAVISCON) is comparable to intravenous (IV) proton-pump inhibitor for the symptomatic relief of GERD symptoms. Methods: This is a prospective randomized open- labelled study conducted in Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center Emergency Complex (Ambulatory

Division). Eligible subjects (N = 268) signed an PD0332991 datasheet informed consent to participate in the study iin which 2 groups were formed-Alginate group (N = 125) and the IV Omeprazole group (N = 143). 3 tests were used to analyze the results of this study:1. Kruskal-Wallis Test, 2.

Friedman Test and 3. Multiple Linear Regression and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Results: Demographic data were similar in both groups. Majority of patients included in the study had moderate to severe symptoms of heartburn (141, 52.5%) and regurgitation (138, 51.5%). Using the parameter estimated changes to the pain rating scale given by each patient overtime after treatment, the data collated showed a significant difference on the onset of relief between the 2 groups. P values up to 3 hours were significant (p = 0.0000), while both groups had similar results at the 4th hour post-treatment. Conclusion: This study shows that alginates provide faster relief of see more GERD symptoms compared to IV Omeprazole. It is more practical as it is cheaper, especially when it comes to relieving GERD symptoms in an ER setting. Key Word(s): 1. GERD; 2. Alginates; 3. Omeprazole; Dependent Variable B p value Pain rating after 30 minutes −2.001 0.000 Pain rating after 1 hour −1.487 0.000 Pain rating after 2 hours −1.755 0.000 Pain rating after 3 hours −0.884 0.000 Pain rating after 4 hours 0.156 0.022 Presenting Author: ARUNKUMAR KRISHNAN Additional Authors: RAJESH PRABHU P, JAYANTHI VENKATARAMAN Corresponding Author: ARUNKUMAR KRISHNAN Objective: Long term acid suppressants are known to have adverse effects. s. Gastric acid secretion influences the density of H.

In total, 43% of the patients were smokers Patients with postope

In total, 43% of the patients were smokers. Patients with postoperative strictures were less frequently on anti-TNF therapy (17%, p = 0.023), thiopurines (34%, p = 0.001), and combination therapy (24%, p = 0.001) before surgery, and only 61% were on thiopurines at the time of postoperative colonoscopy (p = 0.040). In CD patients

with postoperative strictures, BAY 57-1293 32% were symptomatic, 68% had an anastomotic stricture, and 18% had an ileal stricture. Endoscopic balloon dilatation was performed in 75% of patients (n = 30) with postoperative strictures, without any procedure complication, with a mean of two dilatations per patient, and mean time between dilatations of 7 ± 4 months. There were no differences between patients with postoperative strictures that were dilatated (n = 30) or not (n = 10), concerning hospital admission and new surgery. CD patients without anti-TNF therapy (OR 5.2 p = 0.033) or thiopurines (OR 5.3, p = 0.002) before surgery and without thiopurines (OR 2.21, p = 0.042) after surgery were at risk for postoperative strictures. Combination therapy before surgery was protective (OR 0.08, p = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences for sex, Montreal classification, smoking, disease onset time until surgery and time until colonoscopy. Conclusion: Anti-TNF and/or thiopurines therapy before surgery

and thiopurines after surgery Selleck STI571 learn more are protective factors for postoperative stricture development in patients with Crohn’s disease. Key Word(s): 1. Crohn disease; 2. stricture; 3. surgery; 4. balloon dilatation;

Presenting Author: DUMINDA SUBASINGHE Additional Authors: NAVARATHNA MUDIYANSELAGEMETHTHANANDA NAVARATHNA, DHARMABANDUNANDADEVA SAMARASEKERA Corresponding Author: DUMINDA SUBASINGHE Affiliations: Department of Surgery, The National Hospital of Sri Lanaka Objective: Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are chronic inflammatory conditions related to the gastrointestinal tract. Faecal incontinence (FI) impairs quality of life (QOL), causing embarrassment and limiting daily activities. FI can have a negative impact on the QOL of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There is limited published data on FI amongst people with IBD in South Asia. This study looks at the frequency and severity of FI, and its effect on the QOL in IBD patients who presented to a tertiary care center. Methods: Patients with an established diagnosis of IBD were identified and demographics, disease characteristics, FI (Vaizey score), quality of life (IBD-Q) were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 184 patients (women = 101, 54.9%; UC = 153, 83.2%) were included. Female preponderance was observed for UC (male/female ratio = 1 : 1.5) and male for CD (male/female = 2 : 1). Forty eight (26%) reported symptoms of FI.

Enhancing cell viability and plating efficiency, increasing sinus

Enhancing cell viability and plating efficiency, increasing sinusoidal spaces, regulation of sinusoidal endothelial cell barrier and controlling inflammatory Cilomilast research buy reaction may promote initial cell engraftment.

Liver-directed irradiation, reversible portal vein embolization and fetal liver stem/progenitor cell transplantation induce preferential proliferation of donor cells substantially without severe side-effects. Furthermore, it seems better to use combined approaches to achieve a high level of liver repopulation for the management of metabolic liver diseases. THERAPEUTIC LIVER REPOPULATION (TLR), an innovative concept of hepatocyte transplantation, shows great potential in the treatment of metabolic liver diseases.[1] In principle, intraportal injection of a relatively small number of normal hepatocytes permits substantial replacement of the host liver tissue by transplanted cells. TLR is capable of fully compensating for the missing metabolic functions and meanwhile avoiding the complete resection of the otherwise normal native liver. Although technically simple and minimally invasive, this buy BMS-907351 therapeutic modality remains hindered by a low level of hepatocyte replacement.[2] It is estimated that for substantial reversion

of various metabolic liver disorders, at least 5% liver replacement by transplanted cells is required. Unfortunately, the replacement level reached only 1% or less of the liver mass in clinical hepatocyte transplantation. Two main obstacles lead to the very little donor cell mass in the recipient. First, the vast majority of donor hepatocytes are cleared during the engraftment process into the liver parenchyma.[3] Second, massive proliferation of surviving donor cells is not observed in the host liver. Thus, there is a need for the design of strategies that could amplify the engraftment and proliferation of transplanted cells. This is especially important when the severe scarcity find more of donor livers hampers the availability of hepatocytes for transplantation.

Moreover, the amount of donor cells that can be safely infused into the portal circulation during a single procedure is particularly low, usually no more than 5% of the liver mass. This review will focus on the mechanisms for initial engraftment and selective proliferation during liver repopulation, and discuss some promising, clinically applicable methods to improve liver repopulation. In addition, early liver stem/progenitor cells are also discussed, which own exclusively enormous repopulation capacity and are being explored as an alternative cell candidate for TLR. METABOLIC LIVER DISORDERS are characterized by inborn defects in hepatic enzymes or other proteins with metabolic functions.

This was a strong recommendation made by the New South Wales audi

This was a strong recommendation made by the New South Wales audit of pathology reporting in 2000.14 However, it remains to be seen whether current hospital practice, in both the operating room and the pathology laboratory in both the public and private sectors, adheres to this approach. Currently, the most widely used taxonomy of clinicopathological staging of CRC is the TNM system based on the original recommendations by Pierre Denoix,24,25 and promoted by the UICC. The AJCC mTOR inhibitor recommendations for staging and end-results reporting are based on the principles of TNM.1 Indeed the UICC and AJCC have collaborated closely over many years to produce a uniform, comprehensive, multidimensional

staging classification. An excellent historical overview of this clinicopathological approach is summarised in the current Dabrafenib seventh edition (TNM7) of the AJCC “Cancer Staging Manual” effective for cancers diagnosed on or after January 1, 2010.8 The details of this system as they apply to CRC are beyond the scope of this review but can be readily consulted either in TNM7 or in the abbreviated sixth edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Handbook26 of the Manual. A general criticism of the TNM format of clinicopathological staging remains the inherent, constantly evolving complexity of this system due to repeated detailed revision every six to eight years, often without adequate levels of evidence.16 Further complexity is added

when a stage is broken down or sub-classified depending on whether the stage is determined following neoadjuvant treatment, or after surgery, or at the time of recurrence or for cancers diagnosed at autopsy. Overall, five stage classifications are described for any particular tumor site including: clinical/pre-treatment stage designated as cTNM or TNM; pathologic stage designated as pTNM; post therapy or post neoadjuvant therapy stage designated as ycTNM or ypTNM and autopsy classification

designated as aTNM.8 This contrasts markedly with the simple stepwise structure of classical Dukes’ or the ACPS system. Within the hierarchy of TNM there are several contentious issues which require emphasis find more and clarification and these are well discussed in a detailed review by Compton.27 Concerning T stage, it should be understood that pTis (carcinoma in situ) refers to both “intraepithelial carcinoma”, that is the presence of malignant cells confined above the basement membrane, and “intramucosal carcinoma” where spread is confined to the lamina propria and not beyond the muscularis mucosae. Hence, penetration of the muscularis mucosae with access of tumor cells to lymphatics and small blood vessels (i.e. pathways for metastatic spread) are classified as pT1. Category pT3 implies direct tumor spread to perimuscular, subserosal soft tissues but not direct involvement of a serosal surface nor infiltration into an adjacent structure.

The management of patients with inhibitors is the greatest challe

The management of patients with inhibitors is the greatest challenge facing haemophilia health professionals. Immune tolerance induction (ITI) can be successful in eliminating the inhibitor in the majority of CHIR-99021 research buy patients, provided it is started soon after the inhibitor develops and the titre of the inhibitor is <10 BU at commencement of ITI. Acute bleeding is treated using one of two bypassing agents, which exhibit similar efficacy and safety. Surgery in inhibitor patients is challenging and should only be carried out in experienced centres. The use of clotting factor concentrates

has transformed the lives of persons with haemophilia. Unfortunately the use of non-virally inactivated products prior to the mid-1980s resulted in most recipients being infected with hepatitis C and many also with HIV. The use of viral inactivation proved highly efficient in virtually eliminating the infective risk of plasma-derived products. Romidepsin datasheet Furthermore, in the

last 20 years recombinant products, which do not carry the infective risk have been introduced. The most important adverse event associated with factor VIII concentrate use today is the development of FVIII alloantibodies (inhibitors). Inhibitors are more likely to occur during the first 50 exposure days in previously untreated patients (PUPS) and develop in up to a third of the severe patients.

There selleckchem is debate in the literature as to whether there is a difference in the inhibitor risk in PUPS between plasma derived and recombinant concentrates [1], and a randomized clinical trial is currently investigating this. Inhibitors in previously treated patients are much rarer, occurring in approximately 2 per 1 000 patient years and recently there has been a debate as to whether B-domain deleted FVIII concentrates are associated with a higher inhibitor risk than full-length products [2,3]. Once an inhibitor develops, it results in increased mortality, morbidity and cost for the affected individual [4]. It is sometimes possible to eliminate the inhibitor using immune tolerance induction where FVIII is administered regularly and frequently. When bleeding occurs in the presence of an alloantibody, treatment with a bypassing agent is required. Sometimes it is necessary to carry out emergency or elective surgery in the presence of an inhibitor and this can be very challenging. In this manuscript the issues of ITI, treatment with bypassing agents and surgery in patients with inhibitors are reviewed. Bypassing agents are less effective for treatment of bleeding and only partially effective as prophylaxis in inhibitor patients, compared with FVIII in non-inhibitor patients.

The numbers are comparable with regard to steroid-resistant rejec

The numbers are comparable with regard to steroid-resistant rejection. Basiliximab and daclizumab seem to be equally effective in reducing the risk of rejection. In protocols with steroid avoidance (comparison 3), eight patients would need to be treated to prevent one event of PTDM. In conclusion, the use of IL-2Ra reduces the risk of acute rejection and steroid-resistant acute rejection without an increase of harmful effects. This effect allows for reduction of coimmunosuppression to avoid the adverse side effects of CNI or steroids. Harnessing

this immunological umbrella may enable patient-tailored immunosuppression such as low-dose, delayed CNI for the patient at risk for renal failure or steroid avoidance for patients at risk for PTDM and other metabolic side effects of steroids. The beneficial effects of IL-2Ra should be further MAPK Inhibitor Library chemical structure evaluated in the context of comparative effectiveness research. We thank Prof. Tim Friede (Department of Medical Statistics, University Medical Center Göttingen) for reviewing the article and for statistical advice. We would also like to thank the three see more reviewers of the article as their critical and helpful comments allowed

us to substantially improve the publication. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. “
“J MISTRY,1 A LEE,2 S PORTER,1,3 M PALMER,4 S KO,4 M SEHU,5 J RAJANAYAGAM2,6 1University of Queensland, School of Pharmacy, Brisbane, Australia, 2University of Queensland, School of Medicine, Brisbane, Australia, 3Logan Hospital, Department find more of Pharmacy, Logan, Australia, 4Logan Hospital, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Logan, Australia, 5Princess Alexandra, Logan and Beaudesert

Hospitals, Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Queensland, Australia, 6Royal Children’s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Brisbane, Australia Introduction: Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides support for patients unable to maintain nutrition via the enteral or oral route. The safe delivery of PN in hospital is a complex process requiring an interdisciplinary approach. Given the inherent risks and expertise required for the management of PN, some institutions have formed a nutrition support team (NST). While PN is acknowledged to be costly, few studies have measured these costs. Objective: To estimate the costs of enteral and parenteral nutrition and determine the costs of PN delivery with a nutritional support team (NST). Methods: Retrospective analysis of adult patients managed on PN in a medium sized hospital. Patients were categorized into two groups: NST and control. Costs accounted included setup (access); feed; consumables used for monitoring; and staff time.

Using 10% as a species-level cut-off (see Fig 5B, dashed line),

Using 1.0% as a species-level cut-off (see Fig. 5B, dashed line), ITS-barcode groups fell into two species-level groups and two single isolate groups in the sulfuric acid-containing species. D. viridis was clearly

confirmed as a separate species to other Desmarestia (2.8%–3.4%). D. japonica sp. nov. selleck compound (Japan) was at the species boundary to its nearest neighbors, the D. dudresnayi specimen group (0.8%–1.4%). The ITS sequences from the newly defined D. ligulata formed two major, closely related and partially overlapping groups that showed 1%–2.4% PWD difference to each other. D. ligulata (Spain) was distinct from both these groups. All members of the newly defined D. dudresnayi group and a publicly available sequence, AJ439832, were related at species-level. The D. herbacea group (D. herbacea, D. herbacea subsp. firma, and D. herbacea subsp. peruviana) were all related at species-level. In summary cox1 shows small molecule library screening better resolution with a distinct separation between species and genera compared to ITS. cox1 results confirm species limited by taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis. Our new analyses employing nuclear, plastidial, and mitochondrial markers and four outgroup taxa have confirmed the previous phylogenetic tree of the Desmarestiales based on ITS sequences (Peters et al. 1997). As in the previous analysis, Antarctic and sub-Antarctic Desmarestia and Himantothallus as well as the monotypic genera Arthrocladia and Phaeurus

formed the early branches,

although their hierarchy remained ambiguous. Overall, our results confirm the monophyly of the sulfuric acid-producing Desmarestia clade. It is the sister group to the clade of the type species (Fig. 4). Furthermore, we confirmed that the sulfuric-acid clade is separated into D. viridis, branching off first, and all ligulate forms, in which we distinguish four major groups (Fig. 4): (1) Japanese D. japonica, (2) D. ligulata sensu stricto (including forma distans, subsp. muelleri and subsp. gayana), (3) D. dudresnayi (including subsp. tabacoides and subsp. patagonica, tentatively also subsp. sivertsenii selleck [Tristan da Cunha] and subsp. foliacea [NE Pacific]) and (4) D. herbacea (incl. subsp. peruviana, subsp. firma, and the synonyms D. latissima, D. munda, and D. mexicana). Our classification recognizes four instead of 16 species of acid-containing ligulate Desmarestia (Table 4). The criteria for recognizing subspecies are the following: (i) Genetic distance, but insufficient for declaring different species; (ii) Geographically disjunct populations of the same species; (iii) Clear morphological differences. subsp. ligulata [subsp. ligulata] f. distans (C. Agardh) comb. nov. A.F. Peters, E.C. Yang, F.C. Küpper & Prud’Homme van Reine subsp. muelleri (M.E.Ramírez et A.F.Peters) comb. nov. A.F. Peters, E.C. Yang, F.C. Küpper & Prud’Homme van Reine subsp. gayana (Montagne) comb. nov. A.F. Peters, E.C. Yang, & F.C. Küpper D. distans (C.

” In addition, cell lines originating from human tissue may more

” In addition, cell lines originating from human tissue may more closely reflect clinical biology, rather than models engineered to reflect one specific alteration. Gene expression profiling of human tissue has furthered our understanding of HCC and highlighted the molecular diversity of this disease.8-13 While we know that HCC most often develops in the setting of chronic liver disease,

identification and validation of Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor driving genetic alterations is still lacking. Laboratory models that recapitulate the molecular diversity of HCC would be of use to query the effectiveness of new targeted agents and potentially identify predictive markers of response to these agents. Previous studies in breast cancer have shown that using a large panel of cell lines in vitro can recapitulate the molecular subgroups of the clinical disease in question.14, 15 In addition, these models have been used to generate hypotheses to then test

prospectively in the clinic.14, 16, 17 In similar fashion, the clinical development of new therapeutics in HCC may benefit from such an approach. We hypothesized that the described molecular subtypes in HCC clinical material would be maintained in a large enough panel of human-derived HCC cell lines. Further, to determine the potential importance for molecular subtype to predict for response to novel targeted therapies, we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of dasatinib, Tipifarnib order a small molecule

tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the selleck inhibitor Src family kinases,18 in our molecularly characterized panel of cell lines. The Src-family of tyrosine kinases (SFK) has nine members: Lyn, Fyn, Lck, Hck, Fgr, Blk, Yrk, Yes, and c-Src. Of these, c-SRC is the best studied and most frequently implicated in oncogenesis.19 c-SRC encodes a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that, when activated, is involved in several pathways associated with oncogenesis including cellular proliferation, survival, migration, and angiogenesis.19 In HCC specifically, increased SRC activity has been described20-22 and in some studies has been correlated with an early stage phenotype.21 Building from the experiences in other solid tumors that preclinical models can represent the molecular heterogeneity of clinical disease, we tested this hypothesis in HCC. Specifically, we sought to demonstrate that there would be an association between the molecular subgroup of human HCC and response to the Src/Abl inhibitor dasatinib. Ultimately, the goal would be to identify potential biomarkers of response to dasatinib and to assist in patient selection and define a role for such an approach in HCC with molecularly targeted therapeutics in the future. The cell lines used in the analysis included SNU 449, SNU 475, SNU 423, SNU 387, SNU 182, PLC/PRF 5, HEP 3B, SK HEP 1, HEP G2, SNU 398, HLE, JHH4, JHH 6, HLF, HUH 7, JHH 5, HUH 1, JHH 2, JHH 7, JHH 1.

[5, 6] Studies evaluating CPAP and oral appliance effectiveness i

[5, 6] Studies evaluating CPAP and oral appliance effectiveness in improving daytime sleepiness, as defined by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, have demonstrated comparable results in patients with mild to moderate OSA.[7] Patient preference for oral appliances as an alternative to CPAP is well documented.[8] The indications for oral appliance therapy for patients with mild to moderate OSA include patient preference of oral appliances to CPAP, a history of failed CPAP therapy, candidates not appropriate for CPAP, and CPAP nonresponders.[2, 4, 9] Treatment efficacy requires that a patient receiving an

oral appliance will faithfully use it according to the practitioner’s instructions. As with other chronic diseases, patient compliance with prescribed treatment can be problematic. Many investigators have studied patient compliance selleck based on self-reporting. Studies evaluating weekly use report an average of 68% of patients use the device every night, 23% several nights a week, and 8% less than several CYC202 datasheet nights per week.[3]

Research evaluating patient compliance over a period of less than 1 year found a median use of 77% of nights.[3] Adherence rates have been shown to decline over time with one study reporting 48% adherence at 2 years,[10] and another study reporting an adherence of 32% at 4 years.[5] It has been suggested that long-term compliance with oral appliances is comparable to that of CPAP.[11] Studies comparing subjective reporting of CPAP compliance with objective data reveal that patients generally overestimate their CPAP usage and may in fact be poorly this website compliant with their self-reporting.[12, 13] Subjective reporting, therefore, is not the most ideal method of evaluating patient compliance. To date, three studies have attempted to objectively evaluate patient compliance with oral appliance therapy. Lowe et al[14] used a monitor

imbedded into the MRDs of 12 patients over a 2-week period. The investigators found a mean compliance of 6.8 hours/night with a range of 5.6 to 7.5 hours/night. Inoko et al[15] evaluated data gathered from a covert monitor from 6 patients over the course of 1 month and reported objective compliance rates ranging from 20% to 100%. Finally, Vanderveken et al[16] found objective usage of a covert monitor from 43 patients to be 6.7 ± 1.3 hours/night over a 3-month period. These studies relied on monitors that regularly and continuously sampled ambient temperature as the means of measuring patient compliance. A fundamental tradeoff exists between accurately reconstructing temperature data and performance metrics such as memory life and power consumption. A high polling rate improves a sensor’s ability to detect rate dependent information, which improves accuracy and precision of measurements as well as filtering against noise.

2, 4 Of note, it has been demonstrated that Bmi1 is necessary for

2, 4 Of note, it has been demonstrated that Bmi1 is necessary for the maintenance of not only leukemic stem cells but also cancer stem cells in solid tumors.5, 6 Considering that high expression levels of Bmi1 are reported in a wide range of malignancies, Bmi1 could be a general regulator of cancer stem cells as in normal stem cells. Disruption of the tightly regulated self-renewal process is considered a key early event in carcinogenesis.7 Enhancement or selleck chemical reacquisition of the self-renewal capability in hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells is essential for

leukemogenesis.8 We also showed that forced expression of Bmi1 accelerated the self-renewal of hepatic stem/progenitor cells and eventually induced their transformation in an in vivo transplant model.3 However, the molecular machinery underlying the Bmi1-mediated transformation of hepatic stem/progenitor

cells remains unclear. The Ink4a/Arf locus, which encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, p16Ink4a, and a tumor suppressor, p19Arf, is a pivotal target of Bmi1.9 We showed that de-repressed p16Ink4a and p19Arf expression in Bmi1-deficient mice was tightly associated with a loss of self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Deletion SCH772984 concentration of both the Ink4a and Arf genes substantially restored the self-renewal capacity of Bmi1-deficient HSCs. Bmi1 thus regulates HSCs by acting as a critical failsafe against the p16Ink4a and p19Arf-dependent senescence pathway.10, 11 Deletion of Ink4a/Arf similarly rescues neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and frequencies in Bmi1-deficient mice, although its effect is reportedly partial.12 In the

oncogenic setting, the Ink4a–retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and Arf-p53 cellular senescence pathways trigger oncogene-induced senescence to eliminate transforming cells that potentially develop into cancer stem cells.2 Given selleck chemicals llc that enhanced expression of BMI1 and reduced expression of INK4A/ARF are frequently observed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples,13, 14 it would be of importance to understand the contribution of the Ink4a/Arf locus to the oncogenic functions of Bmi1 in cancer and search for as-yet-unknown target genes of Bmi1 other than Ink4a/Arf. In the present study, we prepared hepatic stem/progenitor cells from fetal livers of Bmi1-deficient and Ink4a/Arf-deficient mice and characterized their self-renewal capacity and effects of Bmi1 overexpression on them. Through these analyses, we found that the Ink4a/Arf-independent function of Bmi1 is also essential for its full oncogenic activity in hepatic stem/progenitor cells. Our microarray screening successfully identified candidate downstream targets for Bmi1 in hepatic stem/progenitor cells.