[32] To address this question, we examined the


[32] To address this question, we examined the

modulatory effects of JQ1 cost rHp-CPI on the differentiation of DC from BM precursors. Bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence of GM-CSF to induce DC differentiation and, in one group of cultures, rHp-CPI (50 μg/ml) was added on day 3 of culture. The two groups of BMDC were harvested on day 9 and analysed for cell surface co-stimulatory molecule expression by flow cytometry. Addition of rHp-CPI did not show apparent effects on the yield of BMDC (medium control group, 7·8 ± 1·0 × 106 total cells/plate, 79·1 ± 5·1% CD11c+ DC; rHp-CPI-treated group, 6·9 ± 1·2 × 106 total cells/plate, 74·7 ± 8·2% CD11c+ DC). We observed that, although the control and rHp-CPI-treated DC did not show significant differences in frequencies of CD40+, CD80+ and CD86+ cells in total CD11c+ DC and expression level (mean fluorescence intensity, MFI) of these co-stimulatory molecules, the BMDC that were exposed to rHp-CPI on day 3 of culture

showed reduced expression of the MHC-II molecule by 48% (Fig. 3). The DC that were exposed to rHp-CPI starting on days 5 and 7 of culture also showed reductions in MHC-II molecules by 37% and 14%, respectively, in comparison with the control DC (data not shown). To further analyse the effects of rHp-CPI on DC differentiation, bone marrow cells were cultured for 9 days with or without rHp-CPI, stimulated with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands LPS and CpG and then co-stimulatory molecule expression was examined. Palmatine Both the control DC (cultured in medium alone) and rHp-CPI-treated Obeticholic Acid chemical structure DC showed increased expression of CD40 and CD86 in response to stimulation with LPS in comparison with unstimulated DC. Stimulation of control DC with CpG induced increased expression of CD40 whereas this CD40 expression response was absent in BMDC that were treated with rHp-CPI during the differentiation

stage. Similarly, LPS stimulation increased the CD86 expression in both groups of BMDC, but the rHp-CPI-treated BMDC showed significantly lower levels of CD86 expression following CpG stimulation than the control BMDC. Furthermore, BMDC that were exposed to rHp-CPI during the differentiation stage exhibited significantly decreased expression of the MHC-II molecule in response to stimulation with LPS and CpG compared with the control DC (Fig. 4a,b). The BMDC exposed to rHp-CPI also produced lower levels of IL-6, IL-12p40 and TNF-α cytokines following CpG stimulation compared with the BMDC generated in normal culture conditions (Fig. 4c). These results demonstrate that exposure of BMDC to rHp-CPI during the differentiation stage modified their ability to respond to the activation signal provided by the TLR9 ligand CpG. We next examined the modulatory effects of rHp-CPI on activation of immature BMDC.

However, pre-treatment with individual chemokines at 50 ng/ml or

However, pre-treatment with individual chemokines at 50 ng/ml or combinations of CCL3 + 19 Selleckchem PR 171 (5 : 5) or (3 : 7) did not induce antigen degradation levels that were statistically different from those seen after only LPS treatment. Upon pre-treatment with chemokines or subsequent treatment with LPS, profiles of cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12p70, IL-23, IL-10 and IL-4) released into the supernatants of DCs were measured by ELISA. After subsequent

LPS treatment, iDCs pre-treated with individual chemokines or chemokine combinations secreted IL-1β (Fig. 8a) and TNF-α (Fig. 8c) at levels that were statistically no different from iDCs treated only with LPS. Only the combination

of CCL3 + 19 (7 : 3) induced IL-1β secretion at a level higher (50%) than untreated iDCs before LPS treatment, whereas TNF-α was below detectable limits for all DCs before LPS treatment. Secretion levels of both IL-12p70 and IL-23 were below detectable limits for all DCs after just chemokine treatment (Fig. 8d,e). However, after subsequent LPS treatment, individual CCL3 or CCL19 AZD9668 molecular weight or a combination of CCL3 + 19 (5 : 5) induced IL-12p70 secretion at levels lower than iDCs treated only with LPS, whereas only the combination of CCL3 + 19 (7 : 3) induced IL-23 secretion at a level higher than iDCs treated only with LPS. While combinations of CCL3 + 19 (3 : 7) or (7 : 3) induced IL-10 secretion at a level higher than untreated iDCs before LPS treatment, all the treatments of iDCs exhibited IL-10 secretion levels similar to iDCs treated only with LPS after subsequent LPS treatment (Fig. 8b). In addition to these cytokines, IL-4 secretion was also measured but IL-4 secretion levels of all

DCs for both cases before and after LPS treatment were not detectable (data not shown). Results here indicate that chemokine pre-treatment can program DCs to internalize and process antigen, even after DC maturation by LPS. The pre-treatment of DCs with CCL3 + 19 (7 : 3) for 24 hr followed by subsequent LPS treatment for another 24 hr induced the endocytic capacity of DCs at levels ADP ribosylation factor 96% higher than iDCs that were only exposed to LPS. Our finding differs from that reported for the simultaneous application of antigen or dextran and chemokines, which enhanced DC endocytic capacity but only for less than an hour after treatment.[36, 49] Our results indicate that prolonged presence of chemokines in the cell culture well can modulate DC phenotypes against subsequent TLR stimulation. Chemokines are known for their role in chemotaxis; inducing DC migration to the secondary lymphoid organs to present antigens to T cells, thereby initiating the adaptive immune response.

24 No pads during night hours None 1 2 3 > 4 Micturition status

24 No. pads during night hours None 1 2 3 > 4 Micturition status             25 As compared to preoperative micturition Better Same Worse Hard to answer   26 Patients’ satisfaction Satisfied Slightly unsatisfied Unsatisfied Hard to answer   Limitations of daily life             27 Limitations in working None Slightly limited Moderately limited Highly limited Hard to answer 28 Limitations in activities at home None Slightly limited Moderately limited Highly limited Hard to answer 29 Limitations in travelling None Slightly limited Moderately limited Highly

limited Hard to answer Pain status             30 Pain in relation with voiding No Rare Often     31 Pain in relation with storage No Rare Often   “
“Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common ICG-001 mw diseases in older men and mostly induces lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Multiple studies have shown that BPH inducing LUTS are intensely correlated with erectile dysfunction (ED) and that severity of LUTS was buy Gefitinib proportional to ED severity. Although a direct causal relationship has not been clarified, a tentative pathophysiology has been suggested

to interpret the relationship between two disorders. Androgen plays an important role in the maintenance of the functional and structural integrity of the lower urinary tract and penis. Low testosterone, especially free testosterone, worsened detrusor overactivity and replacement of testosterone improved

LUTS in the hypogonadal BPH patients. Nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide are decreased in the transition Metformin zone of the hyperplastic prostate but phosphodiesterase types 4, 5, 11 are prominent in transition zone of hyperplastic prostate. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor with a long half-life could obtain the desired effect; therefore, tadalafil and undenafil frequently have been used to evaluate the effects in the two disorders. In clinical trials, tadalafil showed improvement of BPH-induced LUTS, but few of the studies showed a significant improvement on uroflowmetry. PDE5 inhibitors increase the concentration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in plasma and smooth muscle, promoting erection of the penis, as well as relaxation of the bladder neck and prostate, leading to natural voiding. Sexual function and LUTS should be assessed and discussed with the patient when choosing the appropriate strategy and the patient’s response to treatment should also be evaluated at the same time. The most common cause for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH).1 BPH associated with LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) are highly prevalent and bothersome problems in middle-aged and older men.

aureus produced amplimers of the expected molecular weight, for b

aureus produced amplimers of the expected molecular weight, for both the GAPDH and the hutH genes (Fig. 1). When no RT enzyme was added, the only reactions Daporinad mw that produced amplimers were the non-DNase controls. The absence of amplimers from the DNase-treated clinical specimens when reverse transcriptase

was omitted, together with positive RT-PCR results from DNase-treated clinical specimens, demonstrated that S. aureus mRNA was present and that (ipso facto) the cells of this organism were intact and viable when sampled. These results directly confirm the Ibis observation of S. aureus DNA in these samples. After immersion in agar media, colonies grew out all around the tibial component, suggesting that the infection was not localized to a particular site on the hardware. There were approximately 1000 CFU in total. The colonies were initially grossly indistinguishable, but streaking on sheep blood agar revealed a hemolytic and a nonhemolytic colony type. The hemolytic organism was subsequently identified Selumetinib molecular weight as MRSA by culture, and DiversiLab fingerprinting found that this strain had a >91.0% (data from four colonies) similarity to strain MRSA 25 and >95.0% similarity to USA100. MRSA

was also recovered from the intraoperative sample by routine clinical microbiology diagnostics and DiversiLab confirmed that both strains were the same (similarity>99%) The nonhemolytic strain was identified as methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (S. epidermidis), corroborating

the Ibis data. Subsequent direct PCR assay for S. epidermidis nucleic acids in tissue specimens [using primers Sepi1216/Sepi1684 (Stoodley et al., 2005)] confirmed that S. epidermidis was also a likely participant in this infection. Live/Dead viability staining revealed the presence of ‘live’ (based on cell wall permeability) cocci ranging from single cells to aggregates of biofilm clusters on the reactive tissue, the outside edge of the talar Amisulpride component, and the polyethylene surface that ‘mated’ with the metal tibial component (Fig. 2). The largest clusters were approximately 80 μm in diameter, up to 20 μm in thickness, and contained on the order of a hundred bacterial cells. The cell clusters were surrounded by large amounts of extracellular polymeric substance. The distribution of the biofilm was patchy, however, and in some places, consisted of only a sparse distribution of single cells, while some areas were altogether devoid of cells. It is also likely, however, that some adherent bacteria were detached by the force typically required to explant a prosthesis. FISH revealed that the majority of the cocci were S. aureus; however, other rare cocci were observed (Fig. 3), consistent with the concomitant, but relatively minor presence of S. epidermidis already noted by Ibis, although the presence of dead cocci could not be ruled out by the Syto59 stain alone.

47 What could be the reason for such tumor cells to resist comple

47 What could be the reason for such tumor cells to resist complement-mediated cytotoxicity? This issue is not fully understood, although degradation of complement or interference

in its activation by such tumor cells have been hinted.48 Being given that cPiPP binds with hCG expressed on membranes of T-lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 cells, the antibody could be employed as a vehicle for selective delivery of cytotoxic compounds to the tumor cells without affecting the normal healthy cells. Diferuloylmethane (curcumin) was used for this purpose. Curcumin is a remarkably safe compound; doses upto 8 g/day show neither side effects nor toxicity in humans.49 Curcumin blocks the cancer pathway by down-regulating the NFKB activation pathway,50 and suppression of IKBα kinase and

Akt activation.51 cPiPP was conjugated to curcumin using synthetic chemical reactions. A glycine Opaganib residue was generated on curcumin using BOC-Glycine. Trifluoroacetic acid was used to remove BOC group from the intermediate BOC-glycine-curcumin. Coupling of curcumin-glycine to exposed acidic amino acids (glutamic and aspartic acid) on the antibody was carried out by carbodiimide. The conjugate of curcumin-cPIPP killed effectively MOLT-4 T-lymphoblastic leukemia cells (Fig. 2). The killing was confirmed by both trypan blue exclusion and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays.52 Many years ago, our colleagues at Harvard Medical School brought to our notice human lung cancer (Chago) cells that expressed ectopically either hCG-α selleckchem or hCG-β subunits. Antibodies directed at these subunits inhibited the multiplication of these cells in vitro. PJ34 HCl They also prevented, in a dose-dependent manner, the establishment

of the cells as tumor in nude mouse (Fig. 3). In case antibodies were given after establishment of the tumor, they caused the necrosis of the tumor.53 A semisynthetic vaccine was developed previously against hCG.54,55 It consisted of a hetero-species dimer (HSD), the alpha subunit of ovine LH annealed non-covalently to beta subunit of hCG. HSD was conjugated to either tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT). The reason for using two different carriers was the experience that repeated immunization with hCGβ-TT caused a carrier-induced immune suppression to attached ligand, a phenomenon originally reported by Herzenberg et al.56 Immunization with an alternate carrier overcame such suppression of antibody response.57 The reason for replacing the previous hCGβ with the HSD in the vaccine was its superior immunogenicity.54 Furthermore, the antibodies formed had better neutralization capacity of the hCG bioactivity.58 The HSD-TT/DT vaccine went through multicentre phase I safety trials. It was well tolerated, and no side effects of significance were recorded.

“Retroviral co-infections with human immunodeficiency viru

“Retroviral co-infections with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and human T cell leukaemia Poziotinib mouse virus type 1 (HTLV-1) or type 2 (HTLV-2) are prevalent in many areas worldwide. It has been observed that HIV-1/HTLV-2 co-infections are associated with slower rates of CD4+ T cell decline and delayed progression to AIDS. This immunological benefit has been linked to the ability of Tax2, the transcriptional activating protein of HTLV-2, to induce the expression of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4 and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)/CCL5 and to down-regulate the expression of the CCR5 co-receptor

in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). This study aimed to assess the role of Tax2-mediated activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway on the production of the anti-viral CC-chemokines MIP-1α, MIP-1β and RANTES. Recombinant Tax1 and Tax2 proteins, or proteins expressed www.selleckchem.com/products/azd3965.html via adenoviral vectors used to infect cells, were tested for their ability to activate the NF-κB pathway in cultured PBMCs in the presence or absence of NF-κB pathway inhibitors. Results showed a significant release of MIP-1α, MIP-1β and RANTES by PBMCs after the activation of p65/RelA

and p50. The secretion of these CC-chemokines was significantly reduced (P < 0·05) by canonical NF-κB signalling inhibitors. In conclusion, Tax2 protein may promote Florfenicol innate anti-viral immune responses through the activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway. The human T cell leukaemia viruses types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1, HTLV-2) infect approximately 15–25 million individuals worldwide [1]. Both viruses have similar biological properties,

genomic structures and tropism for immune cells, and they establish lifelong infection in their hosts with rare expression of clinical disease [2]. The neurological disorder HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) [3, 4], adult T cell leukaemia (ATL) [5, 6] and inflammatory diseases [7-9] have been reported in 3–5% of individuals infected with HTLV-1. In contrast, HTLV-2 has not been linked clearly to any disease, although long-term carriers of HTLV-2 have subtle alterations in their immunological phenotypes [10]. Due to common modes of retroviral transmission [11], co-infections with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HTLV-1 or HIV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent in many metropolitan areas in the United States and worldwide (reviewed recently in [12]). In the absence of therapy, HIV-1 results in massive depletion of CD4+ T cells, with development of severe immunodeficiency and death from opportunistic infections.

Phenotypic tests are used routinely in diagnostic labs for identi

Phenotypic tests are used routinely in diagnostic labs for identification of Acinetobacter spp. Since their results are GSK3235025 sometimes ambiguous, molecular identification was also performed. In our study phenotypic and genotypic methods were complementary in providing accurate identification. The samples were obtained over a period of 6 months (between July 2007 and January 2008) from clinical specimens that included blood, skin and soft tissues (pus, aspirates and swabs), urine, CSF, respiratory tract (sputum,

bronchoalveolar lavages, tracheal aspirates, endotracheal tube secretions and suction catheter tips) and others (synovial fluid). The specimens were collected from four hospitals, namely Government Wenlock Hospital, Lady Goschen Hospital, University Medical Center, Kasturba Medical Hospital,) and one private hospital. All of these hospitals are located in Mangalore, on the southwest coast of India. The single important characteristic of the isolates included in the study was that they were all multidrug resistant according

to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute disc method (14). Genomic DNA was extracted from the isolates according to the method of Ausubel et al. (15). The DNA pellets were re-suspended in 100 μL of sterile TE buffer (pH: 8.0) and the concentration and purity checked using a NanoDrop spectrophotometer (ND-1000, V3.3.0, Wilmington, DE, USA). Liothyronine Sodium Multiplex PCR assay as described previously (16) was used JNK inhibitor supplier to detect the presence of

blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-58-like genes in the Acinetobacter spp. The primer sequences and gene classes amplified are indicated in Table 1. Single target PCR was also performed to detect blaOXA-23-like gene among a few of the isolates as previously described (17). Products from two representative isolates were sequenced and compared to similar sequences in the GenBank. The presence of insertion sequence ISAba1 in the genome and its location upstream of blaOXA-58, blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-51 was studied in the isolates as previously described (18, 19). The ability of the isolates to form biofilm was determined as per the protocol of Rodriguez-Bano et al. (20) with some minor modifications. Overnight cultures were inoculated into Luria Bertani broth, diluted to 1:100 and incubated for 24 hr at 37°C without shaking. Each test was performed in triplicate in 96 well microtitre plates. Negative controls used in each plate were also included in triplicate. Biofilms were stained with crystal violet 1% (w/v) and quantified by the ELX800 Universal microplate reader (Bio Tek Instruments, Winooski, VT, USA) at OD630 nm after solubilization with 33% glacial acetic acid.

Furthermore, rSj16 could suppress inflammatory responses of the

Furthermore, rSj16 could suppress inflammatory responses of the

host and inhibit the maturation of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) (8,9). It is known that the maturation status of DCs is crucial for the initiation of primary immune responses, and recently, it was confirmed that immature DCs are prone to induce regulatory T cells, which are a key components in maintaining immune homoeostasis and regulating immune responses in helminth infections (10–13). Although regulatory T cells were first described as differentiating in newborn thymus, it is now clear that they also develop in the periphery from nonregulatory T cells in a process termed ‘conversion’ (14). Some observations find more suggest that induction of regulatory T cells occurs during infections with certain pathogens, including Bordetella pertussis (15), the nematode Onchocerca volvulus (16), and schistosome infection. Some schistosoma antigens, such as HSP60 and S. japonicum egg antigens, have the ability to induce CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (17,18). Importantly, the immune click here response to the foreign antigens could cause inflammation to clear the pathogens, but there is little inflammation in the skin during an

schistosoma infection, which is a substantial protective response to benefit the parasite (19). However, the balance between proinflammatory and regulatory mechanisms following parasitic exposure is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that rSj16 can induce CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, and the immune suppression induced by these cells is dependent on IFN-γ and IL-10. Our study may provide some understanding of the mechanisms by

which cercariae escape antiparasite immune responses of the host. Recombinant Sj16 was produced as previously described (8). The protein was treated with AffinityPak Detoxi-Gel Endotoxin Removing Gel (Thermo, Barrington, USA) to remove endotoxin. To prepare soluble egg antigens (SEA), we followed the protocol as previously described (20). The concentration of rSj16 and SEA was determined by Bradford assay. Six- to 8-week-old female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice Reverse transcriptase were purchased from Yangzhou University Mode Animal Center (Yangzhou, China). All animal experiments were performed in accordance with Chinese Animal Protection Laws and with permission from the Institutional Review Board. Mice in each of four experimental groups (six mice/group) were injected s.c. with 10 μg rSj16, SEA, OVA (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) or PBS emulsified in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (Sigma), respectively and boosted 2 weeks later with the antigens described earlier. Seven to 10 days after the last injection, animals were sacrificed, and the spleens were removed and homogenized in RPMI-1640 (Gibco, Guangzhou, China). The mouse femur bone marrow (BM) flushed with chilled RPMI-1640 medium to obtain BM cells. A single-cell suspension was formed by gently refluxing the expelled cell plug through a 25-gauge needle.

All tested infants were born full-term, 37–41 weeks Written info

All tested infants were born full-term, 37–41 weeks. Written informed consent was collected from all participants’ parents. Fifty-five infants (33 females) with an average age of 4 months and 12 days (age range: 4 months and 0–30 days) were included in the final sample (31 infants in the eye gaze condition, 24 infants in the head condition). They were randomly Navitoclax in vitro assigned to the eye gaze or head

condition. Another 39 infants had to be excluded because of technical problems with the eye-tracking software resulting in a failure to record data properly. Three infants could not be included due to providing too few analyzable trials. Stimulus presentation and procedures for eye tracking are similar to the ones reported by Wahl et al. (2012). In the eye gaze condition, infants were presented with a person gazing straight ahead and a pair of objects on the DNA Damage inhibitor right and left side for 1000 ms. The person then shifted gaze toward one of the objects for 1000 ms. The last frame with the person looking at the object was held for 1000 ms. Then, a rotating star appeared in the middle of the screen for 2000 ms to redirect infants’ attention to the center. Afterward, only the objects were presented

again for 10 seconds in a paired preference test (see Figure 1 for an example of a trial). In half of the trials, object locations were switched between cueing phase and test. A total of 24 different toys were scaled to a maximum width of 5.5° (5.8 cm) and height of 6.3° (6.6 cm), all covering a similar area. The person’s head was 12.1° (12.7 cm) wide and 15.8° (16.6 cm) high. Twelve trials were presented in a semi-randomized order in which cue direction to the left and right side was balanced, Selleck DAPT as well as object location in the paired preference test (same versus switched). Furthermore,

cued and uncued objects were located on the left or right side equally often. For statistical analyses, each infant contributed on average seven trials. In the head condition, the procedure was identical, with the only difference that the person turned her head toward one of the objects while constantly keeping her eyes gazing toward the front. On average, infants contributed eight trials for statistical analyses in this condition. Trials were presented on a Tobii T60 eye-tracking monitor using Tobii Studio software (Tobii Technology AB, Danderyd, Sweden). Data were filtered using Tobii fixation filter with a fixation radius of 0.9°. A standard Tobii 5-point infant calibration procedure was applied. For the paired preference test, rectangle areas of interest (AOIs) were defined covering each object (6.3 × 8.3°). Visual preference for the previously cued or uncued object during the paired preference test was analyzed using relative fixation length (cumulative fixation length within the AOI relative to the overall fixation length to the screen).

Damage to the myelin sheath and axon ensue due to several distinc

Damage to the myelin sheath and axon ensue due to several distinct molecular mechanisms (Fig. 1) [1, 2]: first, a primary autoimmune response may result in damage to the complex of the myelin sheath and axon by (i) autoantibody and complement-mediated damage by macrophages and microglia, (ii) cytokine-mediated damage and (iii) cytotoxic damage by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Second, R428 given an altered sensitivity of the immune system, primary damage to the myelin sheath or axons may trigger a secondary immune response. In addition to the proinflammatory, pathogenic effects of T and B cells, distinct subsets of these immune cells exert protective anti-inflammatory effects such as the release

of neurotrophic factors and immunosuppressive cytokines. Disease-modifying immunotherapy approaches have provided great advances in the management of disorders such as MS Rapamycin clinical trial or CIDP. Within the context of common pathogenic mechanisms, this review aims to summarize common or divergent clinical effects of disease-modifying treatment options across both disorders. This may deepen our understanding of the disease mechanism of each, and may assist with selecting the best treatment for each disorder. As corticosteroids and plasma exchange are used predominantly to treat relapses and are not assumed to exert disease-modifying effects in both disorders,

they are not the subject of this review. A detailed discussion of these treatment modalities can be found elsewhere [3-7]. Preparations and applications: in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and RRMS, immunomodulation with recombinant IFN-β-1a [8-14], 1b [12-18] or GA [12, 19-21] serves as basic therapy, which should be initiated as soon as possible after the diagnosis has been Myosin properly established. In addition, recombinant IFN-β may also be used in SPMS with residual inflammatory activity. Four preparations are available in Europe and the United

States for the treatment of MS patients with recombinant IFN-β (IFN-β-1a: Avonex®, Rebif®; IFN-β-1b: Betaferon®/Betaseron®, Extavia®). IFN-β-1b (Betaferon®/Betaseron®, Extavia®) is injected subcutaneously (s.c.) at a dose of 8 million IU every other day. IFN-β-1a is available in two different preparations: IFN-β-1a (Avonex®) is injected intramuscularly (i.m.) at a dose of 6 million IU (30 μg) once per week. IFN-β-1a (Rebif®) is injected subcutaneously at a dose of 22 μg or 44 μg thrice weekly. Clinical trials: very recent data have emerged from a Phase III clinical trial that evaluated the 1-year efficacy and safety of peginterferon beta-1a in patients with RRMS. In this global, multi-centre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study (ADVANCE), more than 1500 patients with RRMS received either pegylated IFN-β-1a (125 μg) administered by s.c.