holarctica Although SNP loci are the most informative markers fo

holarctica. Although SNP loci are the most informative markers for typing of Francisella this method may have to be adapted to local SB202190 clinical trial strains [37, 38]. Conclusions F. tularensis seems to be a re-emerging pathogen in Germany that infects hares in many regions and causes a potential risk for exposed humans such as hunters and others who process

hares. The pathogen can easily be identified using PCR assays directly on DNA extracted from organ specimens or cultivated strains. Isolates can also be identified rapidly using MALDI-TOF MS in routine laboratories where specific PCR assays for F. tularensis are not established. To identify differences and genetic relatedness of Francisella strains, analysis of VNTR loci (Ft-M3, Ft-M6 and Ft-M24), INDELs (Ftind33, Ftind38, Ftind49, RD23) and SNPs (B.17, B.18, B.19, and B.20) was shown to be useful in this set of strains. When time and costs are limiting AZD1152 supplier CHIR98014 manufacturer parameters isolates can be analysed using simplified PCR assays with a focus on genetic loci that are most likely discriminatory among strains found in a specific area. For the future whole genome sequencing using next generation sequencing is desirable and

should provide more genetic information of Francisella strains. Based on these data a more detailed view on the epidemiology of tularemia will become possible [39]. Methods Samples Organ specimens (e.g. spleen, liver, lung, and/or kidney) of European brown hares that were suspicious of tularemia were collected by local veterinary authorities in Germany since 2005 and sent for confirmatory testing to the National Reference Laboratory for Tularemia of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut in Jena. Francisella strains were cultivated on cysteine heart agar (Becton Dickinson GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) see more supplemented with 10% chocolatized sheep blood and antibiotics in order to suppress the growth of contaminants. One litre of culture medium

contained 100 mg ampicillin (Sigma-Aldrich Chemie, Taufkirchen, Germany) and 600 000 U polymyxin B (Sigma-Aldrich Chemie). Plates were incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2 for up to 10 days. Typical colonies are grey-green, mostly confluent, glossy, and opaque. Gram staining was performed routinely and showed Gram negative coccoid bacteria. The reference strains F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (FSC 237), mediasiatica (FSC 147), and F. novicida (ATCC 15482) were obtained from the Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Munich, Germany, and F. philomiragia (DSMZ 7535) was obtained from the German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Braunschweig, Germany, respectively. Erythromycin susceptibility All F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates were tested for their erythromycin susceptibility using Erythromycin discs [30 μg] and M.I.C.Evaluator™ (Oxoid, Wesel, Germany) in order to discriminate the susceptible biovar I from the resistant biovar II as described previously [40].

Many studies have shown that its ferromagnetism depends on the fa

Many studies have shown that its ferromagnetism depends on the fabrication method and the post-treatment conditions. A variety of theoretical models have been suggested to explain experimental results [2, 4–7]. However,

the origin of ZnCoO ferromagnetism remains unclear. Chemical fabrication of ZnCoO is greatly affected by experimental factors, compared with other deposition methods such as pulsed laser deposition and radio frequency (RF) sputtering [8–11]. Post heat treatment, used to eliminate organic residuals, can induce secondary phases and crystalline defects, which can interfere with the investigation of PF-2341066 intrinsic properties [12–15]. Unwanted hydrogen contamination during fabrication, in particular, is known to create defects that degrade the physical properties CX-4945 molecular weight of

ZnO-based materials. However, many experimental results have consistently supported the model of magnetic semiconductors in which Co-H-Co complexes are created by hydrogen doping of ZnCoO [5, 13, 16–21]. ZnCoO nanowires have received extensive attention because of advantages such as high aspect ratio and widespread applicability buy MM-102 [22–25]. However, determining the intrinsic properties has been difficult, and the performance and reliability of ZnCoO nanowire devices have been controversial because they are typically fabricated using chemical methods with non-polar solvents [23, 26]. ZnCoO nanowire fabrication with non-polar solvents is based on thermal decomposition via a well-known chemical mechanism [27–30]. The reported fabrication conditions, including temperature, additives, and reaction environment, vary [26, 31]. These factors affect not only the growth of the nanowires but also the physical properties of the final nanowires. Although ambient synthesis has been regarded as a significant condition Dichloromethane dehalogenase in such chemical reactions [32], no one has yet reported on the properties

of nanowires with respect to their synthesis environment. In this study, we examined the change in the nanowire morphology as a function of the fabrication conditions. This is the first report suggesting that the ambient gas should be carefully considered as one of the more important factors in the chemical synthesis of high-quality nanowires. The high-quality ZnCoO nanowires initially exhibited intrinsic paramagnetic behavior; however, following hydrogen injection, the nanowires became ferromagnetic. This finding is consistent with the hydrogen-mediation model. Additionally, this was the first observation of the superb ferromagnetism of the nanowire, compared with powders, reflecting the favored direction of the ferromagnetism along the c-axis of the nanowires. Methods For the fabrication of Zn0.9 Co 0.1O nanowires in this study, we chose the aqueous solution method, which is one of the representative chemical fabrication routes. Zinc acetate (Zn(CH3CO2)2) (2.43 mmol) and cobalt acetate (Co(CH3CO2)2) (0.

Our experience shows that

Our experience shows that emergency lifesaving

intervention can be successfully followed by transfer for emergency cancer therapy with reasonable survival. Emergency presentation is usually associated with advanced disease stage and resources should be diverted towards Selleckchem ARRY-438162 early diagnosis, increasing patient awareness rather than upper GI surgical services on all District General Hospital site. References 1. Fuchs CS, Mayer RJ: Gastric carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1995, 333:32–41.PubMedCrossRef 2. Mortality Statistics: Cause. England and Wales 2007. Office for National Statistics,  ; 2009. Ref Type: Report 3. Blackshaw GR, Stephens MR, Lewis WG, Paris HJ, Barry JD, Edwards P, et al.: Prognostic significance of acute presentation with emergency complications of gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer 2004, 7:91–96.PubMedCrossRef 4. Kasakura Y, Ajani JA, Mochizuki F, Morishita Y, Fujii M, Takayama T: Outcomes after emergency surgery for gastric perforation or severe bleeding in 4EGI-1 cell line patients with gastric cancer. J Surg Oncol 2002, 80:181–185.PubMedCrossRef 5. Kotan C, Sumer A, Baser M, Kiziltan R, Carparlar MA: An analysis of 13 patients with perforated gastric carcinoma: A surgeon’s nightmare? World J Emerg Surg 2008, 3:17.PubMedCrossRef 6. Roviello F, Rossi S, Marrelli D, de MG, Pedrazzani C, Morgagni P, et al.: Perforated gastric carcinoma: a report of 10 cases and review of

the literature. World J Surg Oncol 2006, 4:19.PubMedCrossRef click here 7. Ozmen MM, Zulfikaroglu B, Kece C, Aslar AK, Ozalp N, Koc M: Factors influencing mortality in spontaneous

gastric tumour perforations. J Int Med Res 2002, 30:180–184.PubMed 8. Kasakura Y, Ajani JA, Fujii M, Mochizuki F, Takayama T: Management of perforated gastric carcinoma: a report of 16 cases and review of world literature. Am Surg 2002, 68:434–440.PubMed 9. Lehnert T, Buhl K, Dueck M, Hinz U, Herfarth C: Two-stage radical gastrectomy for perforated gastric cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol 2000, 26:780–784.PubMedCrossRef 10. Bozzetti F, Gavazzi Methane monooxygenase C, Miceli R, Rossi N, Mariani L, Cozzaglio L, et al.: Perioperative total parenteral nutrition in malnourished, gastrointestinal cancer patients: a randomized, clinical trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2000, 24:7–14.PubMedCrossRef 11. Ergul E, Gozetlik EO: Emergency spontaneous gastric perforations: ulcus versus cancer. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2009, 394:643–646.PubMedCrossRef 12. Fox JG, Hunt PS: Management of acute bleeding gastric malignancy. Aust N Z J Surg 1993, 63:462–465.PubMedCrossRef 13. Uchida S, Ishii N, Suzuki S, Uemura M, Suzuki K, Fujita Y: Endoscopic resection after endoscopic hemostasis for hemorrhagic gastric cancer. Hepatogastroenterology 2010, 57:1330–1332.PubMed 14. Huggett MT, Ghaneh P, Pereira SP: Drainage and Bypass Procedures for Palliation of Malignant Diseases of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2010. 15.

On the other hand, we should restrict this ‘revision’ of the desi

On the other hand, we should restrict this ‘revision’ of the design approach to those drugs with a known targeted population (and so apply a ‘targeted-design’), and do not discard the traditional way for drugs without a clear beneficial patient’ group (and so apply an ‘untargeted-design’). The metastatic breast cancer scenario do offer both options: the trastuzumab and the bevacizumab registration trials [5, 6]. Trastuzumab entered the market thanks to a relatively small

trial (469 patients), while able to determine a huge survival difference (5 months); if a traditional untargeted design would have been adopted, considering a 20–30% Belinostat concentration prevalence of the HER-2 positive population, and a treatment effect of 10% benefit, more than 23 thousands of patients would have been required [7]! Conversely, although the untargeted approach used for bevacizumab allowed to register the drug with a significant (while absolutely small) benefit in progression-free

survival, retrospective evidences are emerging indicating those subset of patients where the benefit is maximized, on the basis of genetic variants [8]. The role of ‘early phases’: are traditional Selleckchem Semaxanib phase I studies with new drugs reliable? Traditional phase I studies for chemotherapeutic agents are designed to find the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of the drugs. The assumptions underlying phase I designs are that for most cytotoxic agents there is a direct relationship between the dose of a drug, its antitumor effect and toxicity. Therefore, toxicity and activity increase with the Mizoribine concentration increasing of the dose of the drug and there is a recommended

dose that provides clinical activity with acceptable toxicity. Thus, toxicity has been seen as a surrogate for potentially effective doses. With biological agents, acting on highly specific targets expressed in cancer cells, the MTD may not be reached if the drug has a much wider therapeutic ratio: therefore, an increase of the doses to toxic levels may be not necessary to achieve the maximum activity and it may be an irrelevant Edoxaban end point. There are alternative end points for these agents that can be usefully employed in phase I studies: the identification of a molecular drug effect (the ‘target effect’), the measurement of ‘surrogates’ for biological activity and the assessment of drug plasma levels. The identification of the ‘target effect’ through pharmacodynamic assays is proof of principle and can be proof of activity of the drug. The main application of pharmacodynamic studies is to help in the selection of the minimum target inhibiting dose (MTID) and the optimal schedule of administration of a drug [9].

The RISS has two plans for this: (1) holding a program orientatio

The RISS has two plans for this: (1) holding a program orientation of the RISS program in each department and (2) GW3965 research buy expanding sustainability associate courses in social and human sciences. Concluding remarks This paper has introduced the educational program for sustainability science at the Research Institute for Sustainability Science (RISS) and Barasertib in vivo analyzed its approach to show how it is effective in responding to the increasing demand for the utilization of existing knowledge and technologies.

The RISS program provides opportunities for students from all of the graduate schools at Osaka University to learn sustainability science by interacting with different academic and cultural backgrounds. Also, the RISS program plays an important role in disseminating the knowledge of science and technologies and, thus, can be the platform for sustainability science for faculty members at Osaka University to promote research activities in this field. Yet, we are aware that Osaka University alone cannot accomplish the mission of sustainability education. There remained important themes and topics in sustainability science

that are not dealt with in our curriculum. Therefore, to improve the program in cooperation with the Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science (IR3S) universities is of particular importance. The IR3S selleck chemical is working to build a network with three levels of activities: 1. The IR3S promotes

the interchange of students and faculty across universities through the credit exchange system. At the time of writing of this paper, Osaka University is working to reach an agreement with Kyoto University for a credit exchange system. These two universities are located within a commutable distance and, thus, this agreement potentially creates frequent interchanges of students and faculty through the sustainability science programs.   2. The IR3S is attempting to establish a joint educational program. For this program to be effective, we are designing a joint sustainability core course, frontier for sustainability science, to be offered in March 2009, as a required course for the joint educational program. Exoribonuclease This course consists of lectures and discussions conducted by leading scholars in sustainability science from the five universities.   3. The IR3S makes use of the opportunities afforded by the existing international connections. For example, the University of Tokyo and the Asia Institute of Technology organize the Intensive Program for Sustainability (IPoS) annually. The participants are students from the universities in the Southeast Asia region, the US, and Europe, as well as the IR3S universities. In addition, faculty members from the IR3S universities also participate in the program, which can be thought of as faculty development.

g a high cycle number indicates a low the initial concentration

g. a high cycle number indicates a low the initial concentration of P. aeruginosa in the sputum. Quality control of culture positive, PCR negative samples To exclude PCR inhibition as an explanation for the PCR negative, culture positive samples, the PCR mix, containing the DNA extract of the sample,

was spiked with an internal amplification control (IAC), as described by Khot et al. [14]. Briefly, 105 Jelly Fish oligonucleotides (105 bp) (IAC-oligo), 0.4 μM forward primer (IAC fw) and 0.4 μM reversed primer (IAC rev) primers were added to the reaction mix, and a separate qPCR experiment, using the SybrGreen kit, was carried out with primers hybridizing to the target DNA. When compared to a set of control samples, i.e. culture and qPCR P. aeruginosa

positive samples to which the HDAC inhibitor same amount of IAC had been Androgen Receptor Antagonist added, the PCR was considered as inhibited by (the DNA extract of) the sample, when an increase of 3 Cqs could be observed. To exclude that PCR negativity was due to primer mismatch with the oprL gene of the P. aeruginosa isolates for culture positive, PCR negative samples, oprL PCR was carried out on DNA extracted from the P. aeruginosa isolates, cultured from the same samples. Ethics The study was approved by the ethics committee from Ghent University Hospital (project nr. 2007/503). Written informed consent was obtained from the patients > 18 years, or from the parents for the children. Statistical analysis Differences in Cq values were examined using the Mann-Whitney U test and p values of < 0.05 were considered as significant.

Results A total of 852 samples was obtained from 397 not chronically infected CF patients, from six out of the seven Belgian cystic fibrosis centres. Of these, 729 samples (86%) from 307 patients remained P. aeruginosa negative by culture and by P. aeruginosa specific qPCR and 89 samples (10%) from 64 CF patients were both P. aeruginosa culture and qPCR positive (Additional File 1, Table S1). For 11 of the 89 samples (12%), only one culture method was positive, i.e. six times only MacConkey, five times only Cetrimide Broth. For these samples, the mean qPCR Cq-value was 28.6, while for the samples positive by both culture methods, the mean Cq value was 26.4 (Table 1) (p > 0.05, not significant). Table Buspirone HCl 1 Comparison of the sensitivity of detection by qPCR and culture Number of samples MacConkey Agar Cetrimide Broth qPCR Cq value (range, SD) 78 + + 26.4 (17-32, 4.3) 6 + – 29.8 (25-32, 2.7) 5 – + 27.3 (22-32, 4.3) 26 – - 31.7 (20-34, 3.2) 2 + – NA 3 – + NA 5 + + NA 729 – - NA NA: no amplification, SD: standard deviation Twenty-six samples (3%), obtained from 26 CF patients, were culture negative but qPCR positive (Additional File 1, Table S2). False positivity due to cross reaction with other CF associated bacterial species could be excluded because the PRIMA-1MET mw specificity of the primer set had been tested and confirmed on a broad set of common CF pathogenic species [13].

However, the biological relevance for an association between rs26

However, the biological relevance for an association between rs2623047 G allele and early onset of ovarian GSK3235025 supplier cancer remains unclear. It has been

reported that multiple genetic or epigenetic changes are involved in signaling of certain growth factors leading to tumorigenesis [30–33], which may be potentially related to the SNP effects on the development of cancer. Although mTOR target several studies reported that SULF1 expression was downregulated in different types of cancer [11–14], SULF1 was upregulated in gastric and pancreatic cancers [24, 34]. A recent study also showed that SULF1 mRNA and protein expression were increased in the aging articular cartilage [35]. Therefore, our results call for additional replication studies with larger sample sizes and studies on possible mechanistic studies underlying the observed associations. In the United States, epithelial cancer of the ovary click here is the fifth most common cause of death related to malignant conditions among women and the most leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies [36]. Despite

the fact that it is highly curable if diagnosed early, due to lack of symptoms in early stages of the disease, the majority of patients had presented with advanced diseases and subsequently had a worse prognosis. Unlike other cancers, there are no currently accepted standard screening tests to detect ovarian cancer at an early stage. More knowledge about ovarian cancer clinical characteristics will help develop more effective approaches to the disease. Hopefully in the future, our findings of the age difference by genetic variants could be a part of the efforts. However, our study had some limitations because of its small sample size. Additional studies with larger sample sizes with mechanistic studies to understand biological relevance of

SULF1 SNPs in the development of ovarian cancer are needed to validate the role of SULF1 SNPs in age of disease onset and prognosis of ovarian cancer. Rapamycin in vivo Acknowledgements This research was supported in part by a National Institutes of Health Ovarian Specialized Programs of Research Excellence grant (P50 CA08363) to GBM, a BLANTON-DAVIS Ovarian Cancer Research Development Award to L-EW, grants from the National Cancer Institute (R01 CA131274 and R01 ES011740) to QW, and a Cancer Center Core grant from the National Cancer Institute to M. D. Anderson (CA016672). We thank Sarah H. Taylor at MD Anderson’s Tumor Registry for help with the clinical data, Zhibin Hu and Kejing Xu for the laboratory assistance. References 1. Morimoto-Tomita M, Uchimura K, Werb Z, Hemmerich S, Rosen SD: Cloning and characterization of two extracellular heparin-degrading endosulfatases in mice and humans. J Biol Chem 2002, 277:49175–49185.PubMedCrossRef 2. Ai X, Do AT, Lozynska O, Kusche-Gullberg M, Lindahl U, Emerson CP Jr: QSulf1 remodels the 6-O sulfation states of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans to promote Wnt signaling. J Cell Biol 2003, 162:341–351.

4 and 5, respectively The matrices shown here are representative

4 and 5, respectively. The matrices shown here are representative for optimal growth conditions (low to medium light intensity depending on species, nutrient replete growth media and sampled during the exponential growth phase). The F 0 fluorescence matrices show prominent fluorescence JNJ-26481585 clinical trial emission features in cyanobacteria under orange-red excitation that are characteristic

of PBS (fluorescence emission around 650 nm from allophycocyanin) and Chla (680 nm) pigments. In contrast, the algal strains reflect the absorption MRT67307 mouse of light by chlorophylls and carotenoids in the blue-green spectral region with a sharply defined emission related to Chla fluorescence. Fig. 4 F 0 excitation–emission matrices of a culture of each of the species included in this study. These cultures were sampled under nutrient replete growth conditions and had F v/F m values of 0.6–0.7. The matrices are normalized to the spectral maximum to facilitate LY2603618 molecular weight comparison

of spectral differences between the different species Fig. 5 F v/F m excitation–emission matrices for the cultures shown in Fig. 4 Despite the sharp distinction in F 0 profiles observed between algae and cyanobacteria, F v/F m matrices (Fig. 5) show relatively constant F v/F m in the Chla emission band in both cyanobacteria and algae. For algal fluorescence, the variable component extends along the whole excitation spectrum for emission from ~650 to at least 750 nm (the maximum measured). The excitation–emission patterns for the cyanobacterial cultures show a smoother transition from low to high F v/F m when emission wavelength increases towards the maximum of PSII Chla (680–690 nm), but a sharp drop of F v/F m at longer emission wavelengths (>700 nm). These features

can respectively be explained by a variable component to PBS fluorescence (discussed further below), and the allocation of most Chla molecules to the non-variable PSI in cyanobacteria (Johnsen and Sakshaug 1996, 2007). The feature-rich F v/F m profile of cyanobacteria implies that the spectral location and bandwidth of emission detection can have a major Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase influence on readings of F v/F m, when we target Chla emission in cyanobacteria. Optimization of detector slit spectral position and bandwidth for equivalent readings of F v/F m in cyanobacteria and algae are discussed in more detail below. Simulations of community fluorescence F v/F m is used to assess the maximum efficiency of PSII in dark-acclimated cells. F v/F m can be expressed for all waveband pairs in the excitation/emission matrix, and because the fluorescence excitation–emission matrices of algae and cyanobacteria differ prominently (Fig.

The remainder of the special issue was carefully crafted with res

The remainder of the special issue was carefully crafted with respect to Peek’s depiction of a “three world view” (Patterson

et al. 2002; Peek 2008). Peek, an innovator in behavioral health integration, has challenged those committed to healthcare to think about it from the viewpoints of clinical, operational, and financial perspectives. Healthcare’s clinical world is relevant to the models and approaches that providers use to deliver care to patients and families. The operational world is related to the workflow, procedural, and structural (re)design elements of healthcare. The financial world is about how healthcare systems sustain themselves economically, and on what we need to change across clinic-, state-, and federal- levels to do so. We have designed this issue to provide information and innovations at each buy Defactinib Selleckchem MDV3100 of these levels. Articles at the clinical levels include Lewis et al.’s biospsychorelational overview of military and veteran couples, Forbat et al.’s qualitative investigation regarding clinical support of caregivers at patients’ end-of-life, Fitzgerald and Thomas’ report regarding working with couples struggling with medical conditions through attachment PP2 nmr perspectives and emotionally-focused couples therapy,

and Skorunka et al.’s family-based efforts with patients struggling with psychosomatic disorders. Articles at the operational levels include Fox et al.’s account regarding the opportunities and challenges for family therapists working in primary care and Marlowe et al.’s framework for making such integration work. Articles at the financial levels include Edwards et al.’s primer for Medical Family Therapists in healthcare policy and Crane and Christenson’s summary report of family therapy’s cost effectiveness. Articles tying Org 27569 all three of these worlds together include Tyndall et al.’s theoretical and empirical review of MedFT, Mendenhall et al.’s call to advance research in our field, and Tyndall et al.’s consideration of competencies core to our work. In 2010, the American Association

for Marriage and Family Therapy formulated a training track as part of its annual conference devoted to workforce development in MedFT. What is needed now is ongoing training across University training sites and at national conferences to help new and practicing clinicians and researchers grow and develop MedFT, so that they are more competitive in the marketplace. Empirical evidence is also needed that addresses the issues of health using a biopsychosocial-spiritual and systemic lens to generate outcomes that are transformative for patients and their families in-context. While Crane and Christenson (in this special issue) have provided us with some studies, we need more research to demonstrate the health benefits for the couple and family when the patient seeks treatment and members of their family/social systems are included as a part of it.

e , initial activity, and comparing this

e., initial activity, and comparing this activity to the activity of the fully carbamylated enzyme, i.e. total activity (Perchorowicz et al. 1981). To measure Rubisco activation, check details the standard assay described above (Fig. 1a) or a modified version (Fig. 1b) can be used as a stand-alone assay for either purified Rubisco or Rubisco in leaf extracts (Fig. 1b). The modified version still uses dPGM-ST and enolase to convert 3-PGA to PEP, but couples PEP formation to NADH oxidation via pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. The

pyruvate kinase-lactate dehydrogenase link requires ADP, a potent inhibitor of RCA, but not Rubisco. Thus, these linking enzymes, while suitable for measuring Rubisco activity per se, cannot be used for measuring the effects of RCA on Rubisco activity in a continuous WZB117 assay. The main advantage of the modified assay for

measuring Rubisco is that the two linking enzymes are commercially available and inexpensive. To demonstrate the usefulness of the assay for measuring Rubisco activation, the effect of irradiance on the SHP099 mouse activation state of Rubisco was determined in wild-type and transgenic Arabidopsis using the modified assay (Fig. 1b). As shown in Table 1, the results demonstrated that the assay was capable of measuring light-dependent changes in Rubisco activation that occur in wild-type plants. The measurements also confirmed that (1) deactivation of Rubisco in response to low light was minimal in the rwt43 transformant, a transgenic Arabidopsis that expresses only the ADP-insensitive β-isoform of RCA (Carmo-Silva and Salvucci 2013) and (2) the rates

of Rubisco activity many in crude leaf extracts of wild-type and transgenic plants were similar to those determined with a 14C-based Rubisco assay (Salvucci et al. 2006). In a separate set of experiments, the non-radioactive assay was used to detect the decrease in Rubisco activation state that occurred in camelina plants subjected to heat stress (Supplemental Table S2). These results confirmed previous findings obtained using the 14C assay (Carmo-Silva and Salvucci 2012). Table 1 Effect of irradiance on the activation state of Rubisco in wild type Arabidopsis and the transgenic line, rwt43 Arabidopsis line Irradiance (μE m−2 s−1) Rubisco activity Activation (%) Initial Total (μmol min−1 mg−1 prot) Wild type 1200 0.40 ± 0.03 0.46 ± 0.08 86 ± 3a   75 0.35 ± 0.03 0.59 ± 0.02 60 ± 4b   25 0.13 ± 0.01 0.59 ± 0.03 23 ± 2c rwt43 1200 0.42 ± 0.08 0.45 ± 0.07 91 ± 4a   75 0.45 ± 0.04 0.53 ± 0.04 85 ± 4a   25 0.47 ± 0.03 0.55 ± 0.04 87 ± 3a Leaf discs were exposed to the indicated irradiance for 120 min prior to sampling. Letters indicate activation states that are statistically different at the P = <0.