In this study, we developed a new enzyme hybrid material composed

In this study, we developed a new enzyme hybrid material composed of multiple layers on an Au-FGO electrode. Multiple

layers, composed of the enzyme hybrid and polymers, were spin coated layer by layer on to the Au-FGO. Our findings show that the multiple layers with Au-FGO exhibit a more stable response to glucose in the presence of interference substances in urine. In addition, measurements of urine samples of patients with hyperglycemia (n = 30) show good correlation with blood glucose of same patients measured by commercially available glucose meters. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board at our institute and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Urine and serum Selleck Entinostat sample collection was performed Dabrafenib mouse between December 2012 and May 2013 from 30 subjects that met our inclusion criteria and consented to participate. The number recruited was based on sample size estimation, and the inclusion criterion was that patients

be scheduled for orthopedic surgery at our hospital. Silver nitrate (AgNO3), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), sodium borohydride (NaBH4), ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (Mn = 10,000 g/mol), and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich. Glucose oxidase (GOx) (from Aspergillus niger, >100 U/mg), anhydrous ethanol (C2H6O), albumin from bovine serum (BSA), glutaraldehyde, nafion® perfluorinated resin, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate, 1,3-bis(trifluoromethyl) benzene, d-(+)-glucose (reagent grade), and N-[Tris(hydroxymethyl) methyl]-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid sodium salt (TES) buffer were also obtained

from Sigma–Aldrich. As shown in Fig. 1 the Au electrode PCB was fabricated. Approximately 250 gold electrode chips on each 4 in glass wafer were fabricated during the process (Fig. 1(a)). Depsipeptide manufacturer Each electrode chip is composed of working, counter, and reference electrode, these are denoted as WE, CE, and RE, respectively (Fig. 1(b)). Prior to being diced into each chip, the glass wafer was spin coated with the aforementioned layers to form multilayers on top of the Au-electrode. Each electrode chip was then diced and glued to the region indicated by arrows (Fig. 1(c and d)). We fabricated two types of multilayer Au-chips, one is for in-house use as a prototype and the other is for a portable prototype (not shown in this article). Shown in Fig. 2 is a customized prototype of the read out system for the fabricated chips. As can be seen in Fig. 2(a), the layout and PCB of the read out circuit, each board has five readout channels that are able to collect amperometric data from Au PCBs implemented in each channel. In a single run, five different Au-PCB chips can be mounted and with the assistance of a lever each platform can be precisely inserted into the desired solutions kept in eppendorf tubes (Fig. 2(b)).

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common form of c

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common form of cancer worldwide and the third most common Epigenetic inhibitor cause of cancer-related deaths (Raza and Sood, 2014). Safe

and effective chemotherapeutic reagents such as DHA are needed for use against HCC, and it remains important to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanisms of DHA against HCC. As mentioned above, there have been several studies on the cytotoxic mechanisms of DHA and the p53-dependent inhibitory effects of PFT using experimental cell culture models, but it is unknown whether PFT affects DHA-induced cytotoxicity in human HCC cells. In this report, we examined the effects of PFT on DHA-induced reductions in cell survival in HepG2 cells, as well as the effects on p53 expression, oxidative stress, autophagy and mitochondrial damage. This is the first report to suggest that PFT acts via a p53-independent mechanism against DHA-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Human hepatoma HepG2, Hep3B or Huh7 cells were supplied by the Cell Resource Center for Biomedical Research, Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan). Cells were routinely kept U0126 solubility dmso in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and penicillin G (100 U/ml)/streptomycin (100 μg/ml) at 37 °C in a humidified 5% CO2-95% air incubator under standard conditions. The drugs used in these

experiments, pifithrin-α (PFT) or cis-4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19-DHA (#D2534, ≥98%; Sigma, St. Louis, MO) and all other reagents were of the highest grade available, and were supplied by either Sigma or Wako Pure Chemical Industries (Osaka, Japan). Cell culture reagents were obtained from Life Technologies™ (Carlsbad, CA). DHA was dissolved in ethanol and stored as a 200 mM stock solution, flushed with argon, in lightproof containers at −20 °C. Light exposure was kept to a minimum for all drugs used. All Amino acid antibodies using for Western blotting were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Danvers, MA). siRNA-p53 (si-p53) and siRNA-control (non-targeting siRNA; negative control [Neg]) were transfected into HepG2 cells using HyperFect transfection reagent (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) according to the protocol

supplied by the manufacturer. A non-targeting siRNA was used as a control for the non-sequence-specific effects of transfected siRNAs. The siRNAs (Qiagen) used were si-p53 from FlexiTube siRNA (catalog no. SI00011655) and negative control from AllStars Neg. Control siRNA (catalog no. SI03650318). Briefly, 5 × 104 HepG2 cells containing each siRNA (final concentration, 10 nM) and HyperFect reagent were incubated for 24 h for assessment of p53 expression or cytotoxic effects by DHA. In order to confirm knockdown by siRNA in HepG2 cells, expression levels of p53 messenger RNA (mRNA) (GenBank Accession no. NM_000546.5) were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with Light Cycler (Roche, Basel, Switzerland).

Similar results have been shown in by Wang et al [12] These dif

Similar results have been shown in by Wang et al. [12]. These difference in results of cardiotoxicity between clinical and animal studies may be attributed to difference in hemodynamics or the rate of formation of clozapine metabolites and free radicals. The cardiotoxic effects were confirmed by elevation in the activities of serum CK-MB and LDH, the two enzymes that are

considered important markers of early and late cardiac injury, especially during clinical follow-up of drug-induced cardiotoxicities [31]. Among various hypotheses of clozapine-induced cardiotoxicity, Killian et al. [7] proposed that clozapine-induced myocarditis may result from a type I IgE-mediated acute hypersensitivity reaction. This hypothesis is supported by the onset of clozapine-induced myocarditis, selleck compound which commonly includes peripheral eosinophilia and eosinophilic myocardial infiltrates [10]. These reports are consistent with our results showing Selleckchem BTK inhibitor an increase in cardiac MPO level, which is an index of neutrophil migration, in clozapine-treated animals. Activated eosinophils induce tissue injury and necrosis through the production and release of reactive oxygen metabolites and cytotoxic proteins (e.g., proteases and MPO) into the extracellular fluid

[32]. One possible explanation of this hypothesis comes from the fact that clozapine undergoes bioactivation in myocardial tissue to a chemically reactive nitrinium ion metabolite, which stimulates cellular injury, lipid peroxidation and free radical production [33]. These results are consistent with our results showing increased cardiac levels of the lipid peroxidation product (MDA) with clozapine treatment. This nitrinium ion also binds with Bay 11-7085 proteins in the myocardium, leading to formation of an antigenic complex that stimulates the immune response and macrophages [34]. This complex subsequently

leads to myocardial cell damage via the release of free radicals and the activation of a variety of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α [35]. The increase of cardiac TNF-α by clozapine is dose-dependent [12]. These findings are consistent with the results of this study. TNF-α is known to be able to attract leukocytes to inflammatory sites, enhancing the generation of reactive species [36]. Moreover, TNF-α seems to be responsible for regulating the production of some mediators that stimulate inflammatory reaction, such as NF-κβ and COX-2 [37]. The results of this study clearly showed an increase in cardiac NF-κβ levels in CLZ-treated animals. Previous studies support the concept of the involvement of TNF-α in clozapine-induced cardiotoxicity, in which clozapine can stimulate in vivo release of TNF-α and various interleukins [12] and [13]. In addition, clozapine-induced myocarditis in humans is accompanied by the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α [38].

2) Little toxicity was

observed with an overlay of dodec

2). Little toxicity was

observed with an overlay of dodecane, with only 2% dead cells. Although both dodecane and mineral oil had low toxicity, dodecane has high CO2 absorption. The abilities of dodecane and mineral oil to absorb CO2 are approximately 1.7 and 1.1 times higher than that of water, respectively [14] and [15]. Dodecane, the oil with the lowest recorded cytotoxicity and high CO2 absorption, was subsequently PF-562271 research buy used for micro-compartmentalized culture. To examine the influence of dodecane on cell growth in test tubes, S. elongatus was cultured with overlaid dodecane supplied with 5% CO2. When S. elongatus was cultivated under 5% CO2, the specific growth rate increased 2.4-fold compared to that in normal air conditions. The specific growth rate increased a further 3.5-fold when cultivated under 5% CO2 with an overlay of

dodecane ( Fig. 3). We assume that the CO2 supply into the culture medium was enhanced in conditions with an overlay of dodecane. Consequently, an increase in cell growth was Selleckchem Staurosporine observed in cultures grown under 5% CO2 with overlaid dodecane. Droplet cultures of S. elongatus were investigated using glass slides printed with highly water-repellent marks measuring 1 mm in diameter. To examine the CO2 concentration of dodecane-overlaid cultures, approximately 15 cells/droplet of S. elongatus were introduced in air (0.04% CO2), 1.8% CO2, or 5% CO2 conditions. Although little increase in cell growth was observed under the 1.8 and 5% CO2 conditions, cell growth was confirmed when cultured in air ( Fig. 4a). Cell growth could be observed using fluorescence microscopy. Holes containing divided cells were detected

as an enhanced fluorescence signal ( Fig. 4b). Cell growth increased under 5% CO2 in test tube cultures. The difference in suitable CO2 conditions for cultures might be associated with differences in the specific surface area (the ratio of the interfacial area with dodecane to the volume of medium) in the droplet culture and test tube culture. An arrest of cell growth in the droplet culture whose specific surface area was large was considered to be due to a decrease in the pH of the medium following excessive adsorption of CO2. When phenol Selleck Rapamycin red was added to droplets with an overlay of dodecane, the color of the medium changed from red to yellow (indicating a decrease in the pH below 6.8) in 5% CO2 conditions. We observed that cell growth in droplet culture with overlaid dodecane did not require CO2 enrichment in the gas phase. When S. elongatus was cultured in air, the specific growth rate of droplet cultures (0.336 day−1) was approximately 1.4 times higher than that of normal liquid cultures without dodecane in 18 mm test tubes (0.240 day−1). In other words, the doubling time of droplet cultures and test tube cultures was 50 and 69 h, respectively, without shaking under air conditions.

Since then, the science of cryopreservation has constantly grown

Since then, the science of cryopreservation has constantly grown and now is the basis of many fields of research and therapeutic applications [37] and [38]. Today, many biological samples, like spermatozoa, oocytes, hepatocytes or even parts of tissue can be successfully cryopreserved for long periods of time [1], [14], [22] and [30]. However, for optimal post-thawing application of cell samples, the cryopreservation

techniques have to meet several important requirements. Thawed cells have to show reliable survival rates and adequate functionality, while at the same time sterility of the samples has to be assured. In addition, cryopreservation protocols should be easily applicable, reproducible, and standardized to make them universally usable. Optimal cryopreservation protocols should be capable of handling bulk quantities and be easily automated. It is possible to combine many of those requirements Veliparib clinical trial with slow rate freezing in suspension for a variety of cell types. But many therapeutically relevant cells are highly NVP-BEZ235 mw sensitive to freezing and thawing procedures and compromises have to be made. Human embryonic stem cells, as well as morphologically similar induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), which can function as a model system for genetic disorders, play an important role in tissue engineering, pharmacology and

basic scientific research, but show great challenges for successful cryopreservation and storage [9], [12], [13], [18], [28], [39] and [45]. Colony forming cells, like hESCs, therefore require the development of new techniques to meet adequate cryopreservation standards for application in clinical settings [11], [20], [21] and [34]. We recently introduced a surface dependent, enzyme-free method for effective cryopreservation using direct immersion in liquid nitrogen [5]. The basis for this technique was the combination of surface based cryopreservation with the principle of vitrification. This led to high survival rates and low differentiation rates after freezing and re-warming. Surface-based cryopreservation has the advantages of leaving cells in their physiological, in vitro state, maintaining cell-to-cell

contacts, e.g. in colonies and with surrounding feeder cells, and minimizing chemical and mechanical stress by avoiding enzymatic dissociation or detachment of the colonies [19] and [31]. In addition, colonies do not have to reattach after thawing and the possible number of colonies that can be cryopreserved simultaneously is very high [4], [16] and [23]. However, adherent cryopreservation renders cells more sensitive to cryo-damages through ice crystallization, which is a limiting factor of slow rate freezing approaches [2], [6], [19], [31] and [46]. Surface-based cryopreservation of hESCs at cooling rates around −1 °C/min results in low survival rates and a high post thawing rate of apoptosis and spontaneous differentiation [4], [17], [21] and [23].

The association of exenatide and sitagliptin with pancreatitis wa

The association of exenatide and sitagliptin with pancreatitis was documented since 2006 and prompted close monitoring [14] and [15]. Later, the potential risk appeared to be increased by diabetes per se; post-approval studies have documented cases associated with incretin use, but a causal relationship between treatment and pancreatitis was neither proved nor excluded [16], [17], [18], [19] and [20]. In the registry, a few additional reports of non-severe pancreatitis or simply raised levels of pancreatic enzymes were also recorded, without differences

between drugs. When these non-adjudicated ADRs were summed up to severe pancreatitis, the total incidence Sorafenib nmr of pancreatic events was in the range reported in the general population with diabetes and should be considered in the context of the notoriety bias generated by alerts. A 2013 comprehensive review of preclinical and clinical data on pancreatic safety by the European Medicines Agency concluded that the concerns on the risk of pancreatitis

should not be minimized [21]. Later, the publication of two large cardiovascular outcome DPP-Is trials [13] and [22] and epidemiological data [23] stifled the debate; a 2014 joint Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–European Medicines Agency (EMA) assessment concluded with a low-risk [24] but suggested continuous Buparlisib solubility dmso capture of data. As expected, exenatide and DPP4-I add-ons to metformin were accompanied by low rates of hypoglycemia [25]. On the contrary, a two-to threefold increase in hypoglycemia was observed in combination with sulfonylureas, both with and without metformin, but very few cases were recorded as severe ADRs, requiring Meloxicam hospital admission. These data are in keeping with registration studies and with recent clinical trials showing that DPP4-Is are associated with very low rates of hypoglycemia when combined with metformin

[26], despite similar or only moderately inferior glucose-lowering efficacy compared to sulfonylureas. The analysis of discontinuation rates and metabolic effects may give hints for an appropriate use of these drugs in the community. This approach seems sound, as confirmed by a sensitivity analysis in a subset of selected centers with adherence to follow-up ≥80% (Supplementary Tables 1 and 2). As expected, the discontinuation rates of all drugs increased systematically with higher baseline HbA1c. They also increased with age for exenatide, not for gliptins, indicating a preferential use of oral agents in elderly subjects for whom a less strict metabolic target may be preferred [3], [4] and [27]. On the contrary, weight loss might be the reason for the lower discontinuation rates of exenatide with increasing BMI, despite injections and higher baseline HbA1c. Two subpopulations, with limited safety data in registration studies, deserve particular attention.

1A Importantly, cross-reactivity with B andianus venom and reac

1A. Importantly, cross-reactivity with B. andianus venom and reactivity with B. atrox, B. barnetti and B. pictus

was observed. In this experiment, a weaker reactivity was observed against the venoms from B. pictus and B. hyoprora. Fig. 1B shows the results of the Western Blot assay. PABA was able to recognize all of the analyzed venoms. Regarding B. andianus venom, reactivity against bands at ∼14, 25, 50 kDa and higher masses were observed. There was remarkable reactivity with the ∼14 kDa protein compared to the others. B. andianus venom has toxicological and electrophoretic profiles similar to those of other Peruvian Bothrops sp. venoms used in the anti-venom p38 MAPK phosphorylation production. The toxicological profile is also common to Bothropic envenomations characterized by local tissue damage and by systemic manifestations ( White, 2005). The symptoms observed in animals experimentally envenomed by B. andianus venom were very similar to other Peruvian Bothrops venoms ( Laing et al., 2004; Rojas et al., 2005). Our observations find that PABA is effective in neutralizing the most important toxic activities induced by B. andianus venoms when using an experimental protocol based on pre-incubation of venom and anti-venom before testing in experimental systems ( Gutierrez et al., 1990;

Otero et al., 1995). Thus, despite the fact that B. andianus venom is not included in the antigenic pool used in Peru, PABA is effective against this venom. Our preclinical observations are in agreement with the report of Rojas et al. (2005), see more which shows the efficacy

of Peruvian anti-venom in neutralizing many snake venoms found in Peru. This research was supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Brazil – CAPES (TOXINOLOGIA No 23038000825/2011-63), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil (FAPEMIG) and by funds of the INCTTOX PROGRAM of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Brazil (CNPq). The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support and assistance of the Instituto Nacional de Salud (Lima, Peru) without which it would not have been possible to carry out this study. We would like to express our gratitude to Dr. Michael Richardson and Jessica McCormack for dipyridamole revising this manuscript. “
“The Brazilian Ministry of Health registered 25,189 cases of accidents with venomous snakes in 2010 and envenomations caused by Bothrops snakes were the most frequent (72.5%). One of the most striking local effects observed during the poisoning is pain, swelling, degradation of connective tissue, blood vessels, muscle cells, among other physiological components. In some cases tissue injury can result in permanent disability of the affected member. The only treatment currently available for bothropic accidents is the serumtherapy with specific antivenom.

Similarities were found for the peptides P2 and P3, from the P b

Similarities were found for the peptides P2 and P3, from the P. brasiliensis transcriptome, for the histone h2 and a ribososomal protein S12, respectively, of several fungi

species. Nevertheless, no identity Entinostat ic50 was observed for peptides reported here with antimicrobial peptides classes previously described. In order to investigate whether the peptides could cause some hemolytic effect, they were incubated for 0.5 h, 3 h, and 6 h with the red blood cells (RBCs) in saline solution (NaCl 0.9%) phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.2). The pattern of hemolysis resulting from the incubation of RBCs with the peptides P1, P2, P3, and P4, are depicted in Fig. 1. Since no differences were observed between peptide concentrations tested (64, 128, and 256 μg ml−1) or between the times observed (0.5 h, 3 h, 6 h), only results for the highest concentration (256 μg ml−1) and for the most Dabrafenib extended incubation

time (6 h) are presented here. The distilled water was used as positive control and considered to cause 100% hemolysis due to the rupture caused by the osmotic pressure on the RBCs. The saline solution was used as negative control which causes a minimum osmotic pressure across the cell membrane of RBCs maintaining the integrity of cell membrane. None of the peptides presented hemolytic effect when compared to the positive control. The peptides P3 and P4, that presented the higher levels of hemolysis, did not show significant difference even when compared with the saline solution. The data therefore, indicate that the predicted peptides did not cause RBCs lysis. The

peptides P1, P2, P3 and P4 were tested in order to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity against the human pathogenic fungi C. albicans and P. brasiliensis isolates Pb01 and Pb18. Two different HDAC inhibitor protocols were used, which differ from each other on the incubation time used, as described in the Materials and Methods section. Table 1 shows that two of four selected peptides exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans, determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 82 μM and 133 μM for peptides P1 and P2, respectively. The MIC indicates the required amount of the active compound to kill or inhibit the growth of the microorganisms. The control for the assay used was amphotericin B, MIC 0.5 μM. Another control used against this pathogen was the killer peptide (KP), which presented MIC value of 1 μM. Moreover, the four peptides tested exerted no detectable antifungal activity against P. brasiliensis even at the highest concentration (256 μM) utilized in the assay for both of the protocols as indicated in Table 1. Considering that the incubation time could be influencing on the peptide activity by its degradation, the Protocol II was used. This protocol was adapted from another assay to test the peptide KP, also used as control here, against P.

There are four easy ways to submit your issues: • E-mail issuesmg

There are four easy ways to submit your issues: • E-mail [email protected]. You will receive immediate confirmation that your message has been received and action will be taken within 2 months. For more information, visit ADA’s member home page and click on Member Issues or visit Deadline for submitting material for the People

and Events section is the first of the month, 3 months before the date of the issue (eg, May 1 for the August issue). Publication of an educational STA-9090 event is not an endorsement by the Association of the event or sponsor. Send material to: Ryan Lipscomb, Editor, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 120 S. Riverside Plaza, Suite 2000, Chicago, IL 60606; [email protected]; 312/899-4829; or fax, 312/899-4812. “
“ADA Calendar 2012 ADA Food & Nutrition Conference & Expo October 6-9, 2012 Philadelphia, PA 2013 ADA Food & Nutrition Conference & Expo October 19-22, 2013 Houston, TX Members

often inquire about donating their old Journals to a good cause, but don’t know where to start. The Web site for the Health Sciences Library at the University of Buffalo provides a list of organizations that accept donations of old journals and redistribute them to developing countries, found at The Journal encourages our readers to take advantage of this opportunity to share our knowledge. October 12, 2011, 2:00pm–3:30pm Eastern. Evidence suggests that early health education and intervention can reduce the risk factors for childhood obesity and consequential adverse health risks. The “Healthy Kids: School Programs That Work” teleseminar will this website showcase highly effective, evidence-based strategies for implementing school-based nutrition education and intervention

programs, focusing on strategic partnerships as the key to success. Participants will discover how to gain access to valuable resources to implement best practices in a variety of school nutrition program models in order to keep children healthy and fit. Visit for more information. October 17-18, 2001, Hilton Lisle 4��8C Naperville, Lisle, IL. “Diabetes Science vs Nonsense: Medical Nutrition Therapy & Helping Patients Make Behavior Change” is divided into two 1-day workshops designed specifically for clinical dietitians or other health care providers who work with diabetes patients. After completing both days of the program, participants will be able to identify strategies based on the best available scientific evidence; utilize patient’s blood glucose records to maximize MNT; define pharmacological therapies for type 1 and type 2 diabetes; and apply problem solving strategies during patient encounters. Other topics covered include myth busting, diabetes medications, and behavior change. For more information, visit or email [email protected]. Online registration is available.

58% and 26 02% for proteome and metabolism However, no epistasis

58% and 26.02% for proteome and metabolism. However, no epistasis was detected for genome and transcriptome loci. In contrast, the proportions of epistasis and treatment interaction effects on heritability Thiazovivin in vivo (hqe + qqe2) were 51.65%, but only 0.70% and 3.84% at the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome levels, respectively. Molecular markers

have enormous potential to improve the efficiency and precision of conventional plant breeding via marker-assisted selection [29]. The important challenge of applying genetic and -omics data to breeding is the identification of the genes underlying a trait of interest. We performed an integrated association mapping for chromium content and total sugar content based on genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolites, and detected some QTSs, QTTs, QTPs and QTMs associated with two complex traits. The strategy to employ these molecular loci in the breeding practice should be considered prudently. For example, those QTX based on methylated loci of the genome were essentially directly useful as DNA markers and would be directly applicable in breeding practice. In terms of marker assisted breeding for each of the two traits, chromium content could be selected with Phm1376 which had a

significant positive additive effect (− log10P = 10.05, and hq2 = 20.29), indicating that demethylation of this locus could reduce chromium content for three varieties in two locations. The qe (additive by treatment interaction) effect of Phm1376 was negative in Guiding for all three varieties tested in this study, but in Xingyi they were positive. This suggests that reduction of chromium content in tobacco leaves could be achieved by methylation of this locus in

Guiding but demethylation of the same locus in Xingyi. The epistasis of Phm1053 and Phm1471 only had qqe effects in Xingyi, positive for K326 and Hongda, but negative for Zunyan 6, indicating that the best genotypic state in the two loci was demethylation for varieties K326 and Hongda, but methylation for Zunyan 6. In the cases of the QTTs and QTPs associated with Phospholipase D1 the traits of interest, there might be two strategies to use in practical plant breeding. For the first strategy, bioinformatics analysis can be carried out to make sure that the function of the transcript or proteins is based on a functional gene association with the investigated traits, and then the representative gene of the transcript can be developed as a DNA based marker useful for marker-assisted-selection. This strategy is more valuable when the transcripts or proteins have large genetic effects and high heritability. The second strategy would be based on direct use of the transcript as an indicative marker, where the abundance of the transcript would predict the performance of the genotype for the traits. In this study, two transcripts and two miRNAs presented association with chromium content.