Feelings of vigor were higher after both low- and moderate-intens

Feelings of vigor were higher after both low- and moderate-intensity exercise during Weeks 1, 3, and 6 compared to a control condition. Feelings of fatigue were lower after low-intensity exercise during Weeks 3 and 6. Posterior theta activity accounted for about half the changes in vigor. Studies that manipulate mood, EEG activity, or both during exercise are needed to determine whether EEG changes after exercise are causally linked with mood.”
“Bluetongue virus (BTV), an arthropod-borne member of the Reoviridae family, is a double-stranded RNA virus that

causes an economically important livestock disease that has spread across Europe see more in recent decades. Production of type I interferon (alpha/beta interferon [IFN-alpha/beta]) has been reported in vivo and in vitro upon BTV infection. However, the cellular sensors and signaling pathways involved in this process remain unknown. Here we studied the mechanisms responsible for the production of IFN-beta in response to BTV serotype 8. Upon BTV infection of A549

cells, expression of IFN-beta and other proinflammatory cytokines was strongly induced at both the protein and Idasanutlin mRNA levels. This response appeared to be dependent on virus replication, since exposure to UV-inactivated virus failed to induce IFN-beta. We also demonstrated that BTV infection activated the transcription factors IFN regulatory factor 3 and nuclear factor kappa B. We investigated the role of several pattern recognition receptors in this response and showed that expression of IFN-beta was greatly reduced after small-interfering-RNA-mediated knockdown of the RNA helicase encoded by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) or melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). In contrast, silencing of MyD88, Toll-like receptor 3, or

the recently described DexD/H-box helicase DDX1 sensor had no or a weak effect on IFN-beta induction, suggesting that the RIG-I-like receptor pathway is specifically engaged for BTV sensing. Moreover, we also showed that overexpression of either RIG-I or MDA5 impaired BTV expression in infected SBI-0206965 datasheet A549 cells. Overall, this indicates that RIG-I and MDA5 can both contribute to the recognition and control of BTV infection.”
“To better characterize neurophysiologic processes underlying olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia, nose-referenced 30-channel electroencephalogram was recorded from 32 patients and 35 healthy adults (18 and 18 male) during detection of hydrogen sulfide (constant-flow olfactometer, 200 ms unirhinal exposure). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were transformed to reference-free current source density (CSD) waveforms and analyzed by unrestricted Varimax-PCA. Participants indicated when they perceived a high (10 ppm) or low (50% dilution) odor concentration.

3 +/- 6 5 years) were treated at our center


3 +/- 6.5 years) were treated at our center.

Transapical aortic valve implantation was performed with 23-mm selleck chemicals and 26-mm pericardial valves (Cribier-Edwards; Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, Calif) mounted on a stainless steel stent. A limited anterolateral incision, in the fifth intercostal space, was used to access the apex of the heart. The valve was crimped, placed into a 24F sheath, and introduced into the left ventricle through purse-string sutures. Fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography were used to guide the catheter across the native valve and to direct deployment of the stent at the level of the annulus. During deployment, the heart was unloaded with extracorporeal support or with rapid ventricular pacing. The average logistic EuroSCORE-predicted risk for mortality was 36.5% +/- 5.8%.


All valves were successfully deployed at the target. On echocardiography, all valves showed good hemodynamic function with only minor paravalvular leakages. The mean transaortic valve gradient was 6 +/- 2 mm Hg. Thirty-day mortality was 15% (n = 4). One patient died of perforation of the right ventricle and 1 of dissection of the aortic root. There were 2 cases of conversion to open surgery. In 2 patients, the left main stem was partially obstructed by the native valve and required stent angioplasty.

Conclusions: Initial results of the transapical approach are encouraging. Long-term studies and randomized Selleckchem RAD001 protocols will be required to further evaluate this procedure.”
“N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA), is a full agonist at both cannabinoid Tacrolimus (FK506) CB, receptors and “”transient receptor potential

vanilloid”" type I (TRPV1) channels, and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) potentiates these effects. In neurons of the rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG), TRPV1 is activated and/or sensitised by AEA as well as upon activation of protein kinases C (PKC) and A (PKA). We investigated here the effect on AEA levels of PKC and PKA activators in DRG neurons. AEA levels were significantly enhanced by both phorbol-miristoyl-acetate (PMA), a typical PKC activator, and forskolin (FSK), an adenylate cyclase stimulant, as well as by thrombin, which also activates PKC by stimulating protease-activated receptors (PARs). The levels of the other endocannabinoid and TRPV1-inactive compound, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), were enhanced only by thrombin and to a lesser extent than AEA, whereas PEA was not affected by any of the treatments. Importantly, FSK- and PMA-induced elevation of AEA levels was not sensitive to intracellular Ca(2+) chelation with BAPTA-acetoxymethyl (AM) ester. In human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, which constitutively express PARs, thrombin, PMA and FSK elevated AEA levels, and the effects of the two former compounds were counteracted by the PKC inhibitor, RO318220, whereas the effect of FSK was reduced by the PKA inhibitor RpcAMPs.

These results indicate that LMP1 likely regulates distinct cellul

These results indicate that LMP1 likely regulates distinct cellular genes by activating specific NF-kappa B pathways.”
“To determine the extent and structure

of genetic variation in dengue viruses (DENV) on a restricted spatial and temporal scale, we sequenced the E (envelope) genes of DENY-1, -2, and -3 isolates collected in 2001 from children enrolled in a prospective school-based study in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand, and diagnosed with dengue disease. Our analysis revealed substantial viral genetic variation in both time and space, with multiple viral lineages circulating within individual schools, suggesting the frequent gene flow of DENV into this microenvironment. More-detailed analyses of DENV-2 Roscovitine ic50 samples revealed strong clustering of viral isolates within individual schools and evidence of more-frequent viral gene flow among schools closely related in space. Conversely, we observed little evolutionary change in those viral isolates sampled over multiple time points within individual schools, indicating a low rate of mutation fixation. These results suggest that frequent viral migration into Kamphaeng Phet, coupled with population (school) subdivision, shapes the genetic diversity of DENV

on a local scale, more so than in situ evolution within school catchment areas.”
“HISTORICAL OBSERVATIONS AND interpretations regarding the treatment of Selleckchem Fedratinib components of the nervous system can be found in the writings of the Bible and Talmud. A review of topics germane to modern neuroanatomy, neurology, and neurosurgery from these early, rich writings is presented herein. These historic writings provide a glimpse into the early understanding, description, and treatment of pathologies of the nervous system.”
“OBJECTIVE:To Fedratinib in vivo study the safety and accuracy of ventriculostomy by neurosurgical trainees.

METHODS: Initial computed tomographic studies of 346 consecutive patients who underwent bedside ventriculostomy

were reviewed retrospectively. Diagnosis, catheter tip location, midline shift, and procedural complications were tabulated. To analyze catheter placement, we used a new grading system: Grade 1, optimal placement in the ipsilateral frontal horn or third ventricle; Grade 2, functional placement in the contralateral lateral ventricle or noneloquent cortex; and Grade 3, Suboptimal placement in the eloquent cortex or nontarget cerebrospinal fluid space, with or without functional drainage. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher’s exact test and a weighted K coefficient.

RESULTS: Diagnoses included the following: subarachnoid hemorrhage, n = 153 (44%); trauma, n = 64 (18%); intracerebral hemorrhage/intraventricular hemorrhage, n = 63 (18%); and other, n = 66 (20%). There were 266 (77%) Grade 1, 34 (10%) Grade 2, and 46 (131%) Grade 3 catheter placements. Hemorrhagic complications occurred in 17 (5%). Four patients (1.2%) were symptomatic, with two (0.

Results show that temporal parameters of the spiking pattern are

Results show that temporal parameters of the spiking pattern are affected by the size of the cell body. Cathodic stimulation was found to induce stronger variations of spikes while also leading to the lowest thresholds and longest latencies. Therefore, anodic stimulation leads to a more uniform excitation profile among SGCs with different cell body size. (c) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The purpose of this report was to present short and midterm results

of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) of infrarenal aortic aneurysms in octogenarians and nonagenarians.

Methods: Between March 1994 and March 2011, elective EVAR was performed in 967 patients in our institution. This includes 279 patients older than 80 years at the time of the procedure (octogenarians: n = 252, nonagenarians: n = 27). Mean follow-up was 48.4 +/- 34.5 months. A retrospective BMS-777607 in vivo analysis was performed. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and a survival comparison to patients who underwent EVAR <80 years old (n = 688) was performed.

Cox hazard regression analysis was used to assess parameters that influence survival.

Results: Technical MCC950 datasheet success was 96% in octogenarians and 85% in nonagenarians. Technical failure in 15 of 279 patients includes primary type I endoleak (n = 6), procedure abortion due to inability to pass the iliac vessels (n = 6), and emergency conversion (n = 3). Thirty-day mortality was significantly higher for patients >80 years old (2.8% vs 1.0%; P = .044). Morbidity rates were 11.5% for octogenarians and

7.4% for nonagenarians with predominately cardiopulmonary complications. High-risk patients >80 years old showed a comparable perioperative mortality rate to low-/medium-risk patients >80 years old (2.9% vs 2.5%; P = .717), but a significantly higher complication rate (22.5% vs 9.2%; P = .0275) and reduced midterm survival with 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of 79% +/- SE 7%, 55% +/- SE 8%, and 38% +/- SE 9% (log-rank Cyclosporin A molecular weight test P = .03). In high-risk patients age >80 years old, their age did not influence 30-day mortality (2.5% vs 2.7%; P = .978) and midterm survival. Survival in octogenarians at 1, 3, and 5 years was 87.9 +/- SE 2.1%, 70.9 +/- SE 3.0%, and 55.6% +/- SE 3.5%, respectively. Survival in nonagenarians at 1 and 3 years was 96.3% +/- SE 4% and 60.6% +/- SE 10.4%. Higher cardiac (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; P = .038) and renal risk scores (HR, 1.59; P = .0016), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR., 1.56; P = .032), and anemia (HR, 2.1; P < .001) influenced midterm survival.

Conclusion: EVAR in octogenarians and nonagenarians is associated with a significantly higher but still low perioperative mortality compared to younger patients.

“The vasopressin type 2 (V2R) receptor belongs to the clas

“The vasopressin type 2 (V2R) receptor belongs to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. It is mainly expressed in the membrane of kidney tubules, Avapritinib where it is activated by the extracellular arginine vasopressin. In men, inactivating and activating mutations cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and the nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis respectively. Like most GPCRs, V2R’s third intracellular loop (V2R-i3) is involved in the binding and activation of its major effector, the G alpha S protein.

We overexpressed the V2R(224-274) fragment corresponding to V2R-i3 as a fusion protein with thioredoxin A at the N-terminus and a hexahistidine tag between the two proteins. Recombinant V2R-i3 was designed to harbor N- and C-terminal cysteines, in

order to introduce a disulfide bond between N- and C-terminal extremities and hence reproduce the hairpin fold presumably present in the full-length receptor. The fusion protein was produced as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli and purified by nickel affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. After a refolding step, thioredoxin and hexahistidine tags were specifically cleaved with the tobacco etch virus protease. The hydrolysis yield, initially very low, increased up to 80% thanks to optimization of buffers and refolding methods. The cleaved fragment, V2(224-274), devoid of any tag, was then eluted with low imidazole concentrations in a second nickel affinity chromatography in denaturing conditions. The final yield was sufficient to prepare Bromosporine nmr a (15)N-(13)C labeled NMR sample suitable for triple resonance

experiments. We assigned all NMR resonances and confirmed the correct peptide sequence. As expected, the peptide forms a hairpin stabilized by a disulfide bond between its N- and C-terminal parts, thus mimicking its native structure in the full-length receptor. This study may provide a strategy for producing and studying the structure/function relationship of GPCR Urease fragments. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This study conceptualized loneliness as a mediator in the relation between social engagement and depressive symptoms and explored gender differences in the mediation model. Various indices of social engagement were considered including living arrangement, social network, and activity participation.

Using data from 674 community-dwelling Korean American older adults, we first examined the mediation effect of loneliness in the relation between each of 3 indices of social engagement (not living alone, social network, and activity participation) and depressive symptoms. Subsequently, gender differences in the mediation model were examined.

As hypothesized, loneliness was found to mediate the relation between each of the indices of social engagement and depressive symptoms in both men and women.

It is suggested that hydrogen-bonding

It is suggested that hydrogen-bonding SRT1720 interactions play a key role in the DNA recognition mechanisms of the designed ZFP. Our study suggested an alternative HIV therapeutic strategy using ZFP interference of the HIV integration process.”
“To investigate the involvement of N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in local neocortical synaptic transmission, dual whole-cell recordings combined with biocytin labelling were obtained from bitufted adapting, multipolar adapting or multipolar non-adapting interneurons and pyramidal cells in layers II-V of rat (postnatal days 17-22) sensorimotor cortex.

The voltage dependency of the amplitude of Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) received by the three types of interneuron appeared to coincide with the interneuron subclass; upon depolarisation, selleck screening library EPSPs received by multipolar non-adapting interneurons either decreased in amplitude or appeared insensitive, multipolar adapting interneuron EPSP amplitudes increased or appeared insensitive, whereas bitufted interneuron

EPSP amplitudes increased or decreased. Connections were challenged with the NMDA receptor antagonist D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5) (50 mu M) revealing NMDA receptors to contribute to EPSPs received by all cell types, this also abolished the non-conventional voltage dependency. Reciprocal connections were frequent between pyramidal cells and multipolar interneurons, and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) elicited in pyramidal cells by both multipolar adapting and multipolar non-adapting interneurons were sensitive to a significant reduction in amplitude by D-AP5. The involvement of presynaptic

NMDA receptors was indicated by coefficient of variation analysis check details and an increase in the failures of transmission. Furthermore, by loading MK-801 into the pre- or postsynaptic neurons, we observed that a reduction in inhibition requires presynaptic and not postsynaptic NMDA receptors. These results suggest that NMDA receptors possess pre- and postsynaptic roles at selective neocortical synapses that are probably important in governing spike-timing and information flow. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We determined the necessary extent of pelvic lymph node dissection in patients with strictly unilateral bladder cancer.

Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with cystectomy and unilateral bladder cancer preoperatively underwent flexible cystoscopy guided injection of radioactive technetium into the contralateral bladder wall. Preoperatively single photon emission computerized tomography was done in all cases to detect and localize radioactive lymph nodes. Radioactive lymph nodes were confirmed intraoperatively by a gamma probe and removed separately.

5-fold) and reduced the time taken by half Spermine addition res

5-fold) and reduced the time taken by half. Spermine addition resulted in 1.47-fold in furanocoumarin production. The selected shoot line, RS2 was successfully scaled up to 5 L in culture vessels, with 1.53-fold increase in biomass without affecting the productivity of these cultures. This proves to be a commercially feasible alternative to bioreactors for large-scale biomass and furanocoumarin production.”
“S-Nitrosylation reactions are considered to be a major mechanism by which NO-related bioactivities are regulated in vivo. In the present study, we show the effects of the low molecular weight S-nitrosothiol, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP),

on cell cycle progression of rabbit aortic endothelial cells (RAEC). SNAP at low concentrations (0.1 mM) stimulated the p21Ras-ERK1/2 MAP kinase signaling pathway. Activation of this signaling pathway www.selleckchem.com/products/azd5363.html was strongly inhibited in cells stably transfected with S-nitrosylation insensitive p21Ras (p21(Ra(C118S))). Furthermore, the SNAP-induced effects on cell cycle progression were eliminated in RAEC expressing N17Ras, a negative dominant mutant of p21Ras. Upon stimulation with SNAP, ERK1/2 MAP kinases become phosphorylated and translocate to the nucleus promoting Entrectinib molecular weight the phosphorylation of the transcription factor E1k1. Synthesis of Cyclin D1 and stimulation of

the cyclin-dependent kinases cdk4 and cdk6 resulted in the phosphorylation of the nuclear 3-Methyladenine concentration protein Rb and its dissociation from the E2F family of transcription factors. Cells then pass the restriction point in the late G1 phase. Cyclins E and A were expressed as the cell cycle progressed through the S phase upon stimulation with SNAP. Further transition

in the cell cycle from the G2 to M phase was evidenced by the G2/M peak found in a histogram of the cell-phase distribution in SNAP-treated RAEC. These observations suggest that low molecular weight S-nitrosothiols may promote cell cycle progression possibly through the transnitrosation of p21Ras, and activation of the Ras-ERK1/2 MAP kinases signaling pathway. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“There is evidence that NO can regulate CO production, however less is known about CO regulation of NO synthesis. Our studies were undertaken to define how CO regulates iNOS in cultured hepatocytes. CO (250 ppm) exposure resulted in a significant decrease in iNOS protein.. nitrite production, level of active iNOS dinner and cyrosolic, iNOS activity in cells stimulated with cytokines (IL-1 beta) or transfected with the human iNOS gene. However, IL-1 beta-stimulated iNOS mRNA expression was unaffected by CO. These effects of CO on iNOS protein levels were inhibited when CO was scavenged using hemoglobin. HO-1 induction with an adenoviral vector carrying HO-1 showed a decrease in total iNOS protein, nitrite production, and iNOS dimer level from cells stimulated by IL-1 beta.

DNA damage did not increase levels of the amiloride-sensitive sod

DNA damage did not increase levels of the amiloride-sensitive sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform 1 (NHE-1), intracellular pH, Bcl-x(L) deamidation, and apoptosis. Inhibition of the pathway was reversed by enforced alkalinization or overexpression of NHE-1,

leading to a restoration of apoptosis. In patients with CML, the pathway was blocked in CD34+ progenitor cells and mature myeloid cells. Imatinib or JAK2 inhibitors reversed inhibition of the pathway in cells from patients with CML and polycythemia vera, respectively, but not in cells from a patient with resistance to imatinib because of a mutation in the BCR-ABL kinase domain.

Conclusions: BCR-ABL https://www.selleckchem.com/products/dinaciclib-sch727965.html and mutant JAK2 inhibit the Bcl-x(L) deamidation pathway and the apoptotic response to DNA damage in primary cells from patients with CML or polycythemia vera.”
“The kidney-specific chloride channels CLC-K1/2 and their functionally important subunit barttin, by mediating solute transport in medulla, contribute to the osmotic gradient. We sought to determine whether they themselves EPZ004777 are regulated by variations of osmolality. The expression of CLC-K1 and barttin mRNA and protein was significantly increased in a distal convoluted tubule cell line after a shift to high osmolar medium. This upregulation paralleled that of serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1), a gene known to be upregulated by cell

shrinkage. Specific knockdown of SGK1 or addition of the p38 MAPK pathway inhibitor SB203580 abolished the induction of SGK1, CLC-K1 and barttin by high osmolarity suggesting that a functional MAPK pathway is required to mediate osmotic-driven induction of all three genes. The physiological relevance of our in vitro data was confirmed by water deprivation of male C57BL6 mice, which caused a significant increase in serum osmolality along with induction of CLC-K1, barttin and SGK1. Our study shows that change in intracellular volume, because of high osmolality, result

in SGK1 upregulation and the subsequent increase Fedratinib of CLC-K1/barttin expression in distal renal tubular cells in vivo and in vitro.”
“Background: Current standard therapy for Wegener’s granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis combines corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide to induce remission, followed by a less toxic immunosuppressant such as azathioprine or methotrexate for maintenance therapy. However, azathioprine and methotrexate have not been compared with regard to safety and efficacy.

Methods: In this prospective, open-label, multicenter trial, we randomly assigned patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis who entered remission with intravenous cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids to receive oral azathioprine (at a dose of 2.0 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) or methotrexate (at a dose of 0.3 mg per kilogram per week, progressively increased to 25 mg per week) for 12 months.

Twenty-eight RA patients in three centers received tacrolimus 3 m

Twenty-eight RA patients in three centers received tacrolimus 3 mg once daily for 24 weeks. Blood samples for evaluating bone metabolism and cytokines were collected at Weeks 0 and 24. We measured the serum C-telopeptide

of type I collagen (sCTx-I), osteocalcin and inflammatory cytokines. We analyzed the data using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman’s correlation. IL-2 and IL-6 were significantly decreased after the administration of tacrolimus (p = 0.027 and p = 0.024). There was no significant difference in the serum level of sCTx-I before and after treatment. The level of serum osteocalcin at Week 24 was significantly increased compared to the level at Week 0 (p = 0.002). The increase of osteocalcin was correlated AZD6738 nmr Apoptosis inhibitor with the reductions of IL-2 and IFN-gamma (r = 0.405, p = 0.033 and r = 0.380, p = 0.046, respectively). Tacrolimus treatment increased bone formation markers in RA patients. This suggests that tacrolimus may play a role

to inhibit bone erosion by increasing bone formation as well as improving the clinical symptoms of RA.”
“Physicians need to be familiar with the typical manifestations of giant cell arteritis. However, the challenge lies in recognizing atypical cases that lack the more specific manifestations or reflect vasculitis in less frequently involved territories. Among atypical clinical manifestations,

dry cough has been reported in recent years. The literature contains sporadic reports mainly single case report. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of dry cough in patients with giant cell arteritis. Clinical data were collected from 88 patients with giant cell arteritis. Relationships between dry cough and other clinical manifestations or biological data were analyzed. Dry cough of recent selleck chemicals appearance was found at initial presentation of giant cell arteritis in 12 patients (13.6 %). In 2 cases, dry cough was isolated. The 2 patients sought attention because of chronic dry cough associated with inflammation of unknown origin. In 10 cases, dry cough was associated with typical clinical manifestations of giant cell arteritis. A correlation was found between inflammatory biomarkers and presence of dry cough. The mean CRP was 153.8 mg/l (SD 85.1) in patients with dry cough and 94 mg/l (SD 72.2) in patients without dry cough (p = 0.0131). We conclude that the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis should always be considered in an elderly patient with an unexplained elevation of inflammatory markers and chronic dry cough. Dry cough in giant cell arteritis was not correlated with other clinical manifestations of this vasculitis, including pulmonary manifestations, but was correlated with inflammatory biomarkers.

Perioperative outcomes of patients with limited pulmonary reserve

Perioperative outcomes of patients with limited pulmonary reserve who underwent thoracoscopic resection were documented and compared with those of similar patients who underwent open resection.

Results: Of 600 patients assessed, 70 www.selleckchem.com/products/azd9291.html had limited pulmonary reserve according to our criteria. Forty-seven of them underwent thoracoscopic resection. This cohort had excellent outcomes, with mortality of 2.1%, pneumonia rate of 4.3%, and discharge independence rate of 95.7%. Relative to contemporary patients undergoing open resection

(N = 23, including 12 conversions), patients undergoing thoracoscopic resection had lower incidence of pneumonia (4.3% vs. 21.7%, P < .05) and shorter intensive care unit stay (2 vs 4 days, P = .05).

Conclusions: Patients with marginal lung function tolerate thoracoscopic anatomic resection well. Reassessment

of the traditional pulmonary function test guidelines for operability GW4869 clinical trial is warranted in the current era of thoracoscopic lung surgery. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011;141:459-62)”
“Serotonergic hallucinogens produce profound changes in perception, mood, and cognition. These drugs include phenylalkylamines such as mescaline and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), and indoleamines such as (+)-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin. Despite their differences in chemical structure, the two classes of hallucinogens produce remarkably similar subjective effects in humans, and induce cross-tolerance. The phenylalkylamine hallucinogens are selective 5-HT2 receptor agonists, whereas the indoleamines are relatively non-selective for serotonin (5-HT) receptors. There is extensive evidence, from both animal and human studies, that the characteristic effects

of hallucinogens are mediated by interactions with the 5-HT2A receptor. Nevertheless, there is also evidence that interactions with other receptor sites contribute to the psychopharmacological and behavioral effects of the indoleamine hallucinogens. This article reviews the no evidence demonstrating that the effects of indoleamine hallucinogens in a variety of animal behavioral paradigms are mediated by both 5-HT2 and non-5HT(2) receptors.

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Serotonin: The New Wave’. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The objective of this study was to detect and evaluate reliable metabolite markers for screening and monitoring treatment of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) by studying metabolomics. The sensitivity and specificity of the study were evaluated not only for EAC but also for Barrett esophagus and high-grade dysplasia, which are widely regarded as precursors of EAC.

Methods: Profiles of metabolites in blood serum were constructed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and statistical analysis methods.