It remains unclear whether ferrichrome itself, or another biologi

It remains unclear whether ferrichrome itself, or another biologically produced ferric-hydroxamate, is actually utilized in vivo by fhu-positive strains of H. influenzae. Several additional points relevant to

this newly identified siderophore utilization operon of H. influenzae deserve comment. BI 2536 purchase 1) In addition to H. influenzae, other opportunistic pathogens commonly resident in the oropharynx also contain a functional hydroxamate siderophore utilization operon but do not encode genes for the production and export of hydroxamate siderophores. Examples of such microorganisms include Staphylococcus aureus [52], Streptococcus pneumoniae [53], Neisseria meningitidis [54] and the yeast, Candida Selleckchem CB-839 albicans [55, GDC-0973 purchase 56]. This observation suggests that the acquisition of a complete uptake system for the utilization of hydroxamate xenosiderphores is adaptive for H. influenzae as it appears to be for other residents of the human oropharynx. 2) The occurrence in the oropharynx of multiple

species which are capable of utilizing, but not synthesizing, ferric-hydroxamates as iron sources implies that one or more microbial sources producing this siderophore class are likely to occur in this niche. This observation supports the contention that presence of the fhu locus is potentially advantageous to those NTHi strains that possess these genes. 3) Bacteria residing in the human oropharynx and possibly other sites, such as the lung, are the most plausible microbial source of ferrichrome-like compounds available to H. influenzae. Ferrichrome is known to be produced by certain filamentous fungi but these species do not occur in the human body. Approximately 700 species of bacteria exist in the oropharynx of normal adult humans and over 300 bacterial species are present in dental plaque. The opportunity for the occurrence of hydroxamate siderophores in the oropharynx appears likely in this bacteria-laden, iron-limited environment. While many of the bacterial very species colonizing the oropharynx are likely to

be unable to synthesize hydroxamate siderophores, multiple species are known to do so, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa [57], Burkholderia cenocepacia [58] and B. pertussis [59]. This observation suggests that ferric hydroxamates are likely to be available to nontypeable H. influenzae resident within the nasopharynx. Lastly, nontypeable strains of H. influenzae are known to be frequent participants in polymicrobial lung colonization and lung infections involving S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and Burkholderia species as well as other bacterial species known to produce and/or utilize hydroxamate siderophores [60, 61]. Such polymicrobial infections occur in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as at sites in immunocompromized patients.

3 The definition of

3. The definition of hypertension and target BP goals   The definition of hypertension in children is summarized in Table 16. The BP levels for children with CKD by age and height are shown in Table 17. For children with CKD, the National High Blood Pressure Education Program (NHBPEP) has recommended

a reduction in BP to below the 90th percentile based upon the age, gender, and height of the patient (Table 17). BP in children with CKD should be more strictly controlled based on the findings of the ESCAPE Trial and the fact that hypertension is a risk factor for the progression of CKD and CVD. Correct measurement of BP in children requires the use of a cuff that is appropriate to the size of the child’s upper right arm. Table 16 The definition of hypertension in children with CKD Bioactive Compound Library nmr Normal BP SBP and DBP that are <90th percentile for gender, age, and height Prehypertension Average SBP or DBP levels that are ≥90th percentile, but <95th percentile for gender, age, and height Average SBP or DBP levels that are ≥120/80 mmHg, but <95th percentile for gender, age, and height SN-38 Hypertension

Average SBP and/or DBP that is ≥95th percentile for gender, age, and height on at least 3 separate occasions Table 17 BP levels for boys and girls by age in the 50th percentile height Age, years Boys SBP/DBP, mmHg Girls SBP/DBP, mmHg 90th 95th 99th 90th 95th 99th 1 99/52 103/56 110/64 100/54 104/58 111/65 2 102/57 106/61 113/69 101/59 105/63 112/70 3 105/61 109/65 116/73 103/63 107/67 114/74 4 107/65 111/69 118/77 104/66 108/70 115/77 5 108/68 112/72 120/80 106/68 110/72 117/79 6 110/70 114/74 121/82 108/70 111/74 119/81 7 111/72 115/76 122/84 109/71 113/75 120/82 8 112/73 116/78 123/86 111/72 115/76 122/83 9 114/75 118/79 125/87 113/73 117/77 124/84 10 115/75 119/80 127/88 115/74 119/78 126/86 11 117/76 121/80 129/88 117/75 121/79 128/87 12 120/76 123/81 131/89 119/76 123/80 130/88 13 122/77 126/81 133/89 121/77 124/81 132/89 14 125/78 128/82 136/90 122/78

Methamphetamine 126/82 133/90 15 127/79 131/83 138/91 123/79 127/83 134/91 16 130/80 134/84 141/92 124/80 128/84 135/91 17 132/82 136/87 143/94 125/80 129/84 136/91 Falkner B, et al. Pediatrics. 2004;114:555–76 Bibliography 1. ESCAPE Trial Group, et al. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1639–50. (Level 2)   2. Soergel M, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2000;15:113–8. (Level 4)   3. White CT, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2003;18:1038–48. (Level 3)   4. Rigosertib solubility dmso Franscini LM, et al. Am J Hypertens. 2002;15:1057–63. (Level 4)   5. von Vigier RO, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2000;159:590–3. (Level 4)   6. Ellis D, et al. J Pediatr. 2003;143:89–97. (Level 4)   7. Ellis D, et al. Am J Hypertens. 2004;17:928–35. (Level 4)   8. Simonetti GD, et al. Pediatr Nephrol.

Gastrokine-1 (GKN1), a novel protein cloned

by a Japanese

Gastrokine-1 (GKN1), a novel protein cloned

by a Japanese group in 2000 [4], is exclusively expressed in the gastric epithelium and easily biopsied. During gastric carcinogenesis, the GKN1 protein is downregulated in comparison to abundant expression in normal gastric mucosa [5]. Thus, this protein may be selleck kinase inhibitor a potential biological marker for early detection of gastric cancer. Functionally, GKN1 promotes the maturation of gastric mucosa, and maintains the integrity of gastric mucosal epithelium through mitogenic and mutagenic abilities [6]. GKN1 may also protect the intestinal mucosal barrier by acting on specific tight junction proteins and stabilizing perijunctional actin [7]. Molecularly, the GKN1 protein contains a BRICHOS domain, which S3I-201 chemical structure is associated with dementia, respiratory distress and cancer [8]. Therefore, the deficiency of GKN1 will result in the instability of gastric mucosa. The risk factors such as H. JQ1 cell line pylori can contribute to the down regulation

of GKN1; meanwhile induce ulceration and cancer [9, 10]. In addition, several studies observed that GKN1 expression was down regulation in gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplastic lesions and even absence in gastric cancer [5, 11]. These studies demonstrate that GKN1 may play a key role in the gastric cancer progression. In the present study, we examined GKN1 expression in tissue specimens of normal, premalignant, and malignant gastric mucosa. We then investigated the possible biological functions of GKN1 in gastric cancer cells by assessing the resulting phenotypic changes in GKN1 transfected cells. The primary aim of this ROS1 study was to identify and characterize GKN1 as a potential tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. Methods Tissue specimens Tissue specimens of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer were obtained from a total of 159 patients in our university hospitals. The premalignant lesions were from patients

who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Tissues of gastric tumors and their corresponding distant non-tumor tissues were collected from 39 gastric cancer patients who underwent surgery (Table 1). None of the gastric cancer patients received preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In addition, 20 healthy volunteers were also obtained for this study and these individuals visited our hospital for routine physical examinations and were confirmed to be negative for H. pylori infection by using 13C-urea breath test. All participants signed a written informed consent, and our Institutional Review Board approved the work. All tissue specimens were histologically re-confirmed by pathologists [12]. Table 1 Clinic and histological characteristics of the study population Histological type Patient number Gender Age(yr) mean ± SD     Male Female   Healthy volunteers 20 10 10 44.6 ± 12.7 Atrophic gastritis 40 25 15 50.2 ± 10.

Panels show Western blots probed with A) anti-YitA, B) anti-YipA,

Panels show Western blots probed with A) anti-YitA, B) anti-YipA, or C) anti- β-lactamase antiserum. Anti-YipA serum detected YipA-β-lactamase as two prominent bands. The

YipA-β-lactamase lower band at ~73 kDa (Figure 5B, lane 4) was the same size as the lower band seen with wild-type YipA (Figure 5B, lane 2). The upper band of YipA-β-lactamase was detected at ~135 kDa (Figure 5B, lane 4), whereas the upper band of wild-type YipA was detected at ~106 kDa (Figure 5B, lane 2). Anti-β-lactamase antibody detected the upper ~135 kDa band corresponding to full-length YipA-β-lactamase (Figure 5C, lane 4). However, the lower ~73 kDa band was not detected by anti-β-lactamase antibody (Figure 5C, lane 4); although a see more distinct band at ~62 kDa was detected by anti-β-lactamase antibody (Figure 5C, lane 4). This indicates that the YipA molecular weight band detected by anti-YipA at ~73 kDa (Figure 5B, lane 4) represents the N-terminus of YipA, whereas the smaller molecular weight band detected by anti-β-lactamase antibody (~62 kDa) represents the C-terminal region of YipA fused to β-lactamase (Figure 5C, lane 4). YitA and YipA are MAPK Inhibitor Library localized in the outer membrane of Y. pestis To determine where YitA and YipA are localized within Y. pestis, cytoplasmic, periplasmic, inner membrane and outer membrane fractions were collected from KIM6+ YitA-β-lactamase

(pCR-XL-TOPO::yitR) and KIM6+ YipA-β-lactamase (pCR-XL-TOPO::yitR) grown in BHI overnight at 22°C. YitA-β-lactamase was detected by anti-YitA (Figure 6a, top panel) and anti-β-lactamase (Figure 6A, bottom panel) antibodies predominately in the outer membrane fraction (Figure 6A, lane 6) and HDAC inhibition to a lesser extent in the periplasm (Figure 6A, lane 4). Wild-type YitA was detected in the cytoplasmic, periplasmic, inner membrane and outer membrane fractions of KIM6+ YipA-β-lactamase (Figure 6A, lanes 8–11). Figure 6 YitA and YipA are localized to the

outer membrane fraction of Y. pestis and YitA is detectable on the surface of the bacteria. A) Y. pestis KIM6+ (pCR-XL-TOPO::yitR) YitA-β-lactamase (Lanes 2–6) or YipA-β-lactamase (Lanes 7–11) grown overnight at 22°C in BHI were lysed and separated into cytoplasmic (C), periplasmic (P), cytosolic inner membrane (I), and outer membrane (O) fractions Progesterone and analyzed by Western blot. Whole cell lysates (W) are provided as a control for both strains. Panels show Western blots probed with antisera to YitA, YipA, and β-lactamase, or Ail (a known Y. pestis outer membrane protein). B) Evidence of surface exposed YitA on Y. pestis. The top panel includes images of Y. pestis KIM6+ (pCR-XL-TOPO::yitR) (pAcGFP1, fluoresces green) grown overnight at 22°C in BHI. YitA was detected by incubating fixed bacteria with anti-YitA serum and staining with Alexa Fluor 568 goat anti-rabbit IgG (fluoresces red). Fluorescence was imaged under green (FITC) and red (TRITC) filters, artificially colored, and merged.

J Bacteriol 2005, 187:8340–8349 PubMedCrossRef 37 van Opijnen T,

J Bacteriol 2005, 187:8340–8349.PubMedCrossRef 37. van Opijnen T, Bodi KL, Camilli A: Tn-seq: high-throughput parallel sequencing for fitness and genetic interaction studies in microorganisms. Nat Methods 2009, 6:767–772.PubMedCrossRef 38. Carvalho SM, Kloosterman TG, Kuipers OP, Neves AR: CcpA ensures optimal metabolic Anlotinib in vitro fitness of Streptococcus pneumoniae. PLoS One 2011, 6:e26707.PubMedCrossRef 39. Novichkov PS, Laikova ON, Novichkova ES, Gelfand MS, Arkin AP, Dubchak

I, et al.: RegPrecise: a database of curated genomic inferences of transcriptional regulatory interactions in prokaryotes. Nucleic Acids Res 2009, 38:D111-D118.PubMedCrossRef 40. Pearce BJ, Iannelli F, Pozzi G: Construction of new unencapsulated (rough) strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Res Microbiol 2002, 153:243–247.PubMedCrossRef 41. Pozzi G, Musmanno RA, Lievens PMJ, Oggioni MR, Plevani P, Manganelli R: Methods and parameters for genetic transformation of Streptococcus sanguis Challis. Res Microbiol 1990, 141:659–670.PubMedCrossRef 42. Pozzi G, Musmanno RA, Renzoni EA, Oggioni MR, Cusi MG: Host-vector system for integration of recombinant DNA into chromosomes of transformable and nontransformable streptococci.

J Bacteriol 1988, 170:1969–1972.PubMed 43. Iannelli F, Pozzi G: Method for introducing specific and unmarked mutations into the chromosome of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Biotechnol 2004, 26:81–86.PubMedCrossRef 44. Chiavolini D, Memmi G, Maggi T, Iannelli F, Pozzi G, Oggioni MR: The three extra-cellular selleck zinc metalloproteinases of Streptococcus pneumoniae have a different impact on virulence in mice. Etofibrate BMC Microbiol 2003, 3:14.PubMedCrossRef 45. Carver T, GSK2399872A solubility dmso Beriman M, Tivey A, Patel C, Böhme U, Barrell BG, et al.: Artemis and ACT: viewing, annotating and comparing sequences stored in a relational database. Bioinformatics 2008, 24:2672–2676.PubMedCrossRef 46. Vickerman MM, Iobst S, Jesionowski AM, Gill SR: Genome-wide transcriptional changes in Streptococcus gordonii in response to competence signaling peptide.

J Bacteriol 2007, 189:7799–7807.PubMedCrossRef 47. Denapaite D, Bruckner R, Reichmann P, Henrich B, Maurer P, Schahle Y, et al.: The genome of Streptococcus mitis B6 – what is a commensal? PLoS One 2010, 5:e9426.PubMedCrossRef 48. Reichmann P, Nuhn M, Denapaite D, Bruckner R, Henrich B, Maurer P, et al.: Genome of Streptococcus oralis strain Uo5. J Bacteriol 2011, 193:2888–2889.PubMedCrossRef 49. Xu P, Alves JM, Kitten T, Brown A, Chen Z, Ozaki LS, et al.: Genome of the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus sanguis. J Bacteriol 2007, 189:3166–3175.PubMedCrossRef 50. Oggioni MR, Iannelli F, Ricci S, Chiavolini D, Parigi R, Trappetti C, et al.: Antibacterial activity of a competence-stimulating peptide in experimental sepsis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004, 48:4725–4732.PubMedCrossRef 51.

These results might help to unravel the intricate interactions

. These results might help to unravel the intricate interactions among plant root systems, root exudates, and rhizospheric microflora. Differentially expressed plant proteins under ratooning practice Our metaproteomic analysis showed that the 6 proteins (spot 12, succinate dehydrogenase; spot 13, phosphofructokinase; spots 16 and 35, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and spot 32, fumarate hydratase 1) linked to the glycolysis (EMP) / tricarboxylic acid

(TCA) cycle and one protein selleck chemical (spot 25, betaine aldehyde hydrogenase) involved in glycine, Cell Cycle inhibitor serine and threonine metabolism were highly expressed in the ratoon cane soil, as compared to the plant cane and control soils (Table 4). These proteins are probably associated with the release of root exudates from plants. Many root exudates (such as malate, fumarate, oxalate, malonate, citrate, aconitate, arginine, histidine and lysine) are mostly the intermediates of the TCA cycle or amino acid metabolism. Singh and Mukerji [34] suggested that these root exudates were the determinants of rhizospheric microbial biodiversity. Root exudates act as chemo-attractants that function to attract bacteria towards roots [35]. The qualitative and quantitative composition of root exudates is affected by various environmental factors (such as pH, soil type, oxygen status, nutrient availability, etc.) and the presence of microorganisms.

The up-regulation of these proteins involved in the carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism might be explained by a change in the composition of root exudates possibly resulting from soil disturbances CX-6258 which might be caused by ratooning. In this study, three proteins linked to plant stress/defense response (including spot 4, catalase; spot 23, PrMC3 and spot 27, heat shock 70

kDa protein) showed higher expression levels in the ratoon cane soil than in the plant cane and control soils (Table 4). Catalase and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70) have been proven to be critical Adenosine triphosphate for various abiotic and biotic stress responses [36–38]. The above mentioned proteins are rapidly up-regulated in pathogen infection and play a central role in defense against pathogens [39, 40]. PrMC3 is a member of a family of proteins that all contain a Ser-hydrolase motif (GxSxG) and is similar to the tobacco protein hsr203J [41]. Hsr203J is rapidly and specifically expressed in the hypersensitive response to various pathogens in tobacco [42]. Furthermore, Zhou et al. [43] found that the gene expression of PrMC3 was up-regulated in the plant leaves infected by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzicola. Therefore, the up-regulation of catalase, PrMC3 and Hsp70 might imply that ratoon cane was confronted with environmental stress in the soil, which possibly results from the presence of certain pathogens (pathogenic microbes or root-infecting nematodes) [44, 45] or other abiotic stresses in the ratooning system.

An echocardiogram was largely unremarkable The oropharyngeal bio

An echocardiogram was largely unremarkable. The oropharyngeal biopsies demonstrated, particularly in the vallecula, acute-on-chronic infection but no discrete microbial growth was achieved. The other microbiological samples did not yield any growth on extended culture runs. Subsequent neck ultrasonography confirmed a partially occlusive right internal jugular vein thrombus at the subclavian confluence (Figure 3). A CT neck/thorax confirmed this but did not demonstrate other occult pathology. Anticoagulation therapy with warfarin was subsequently commenced. The patient is now

well and not suffering from any residual disability. Figure 3 >50% occlusive selleck screening library right internal jugular vein thrombus on ultrasonography. Discussion Despite reports of human illnesses caused by what is now known as F. necrophorum appearing within early 20th Tideglusib chemical structure Century literature, the consensus definition of Lemierre’s syndrome remains unclear [5, 77]. The authors undertook a literature review to further clarify these diagnostic criteria. Using the PubMed search engine we utilised the following mesh headings: Lemierre’s (All Text); and Fusobacterium (All Text); and Case (Title/Abstract). The search yielded 96 papers published selleck kinase inhibitor since 1980 from a wide global geographical area inclusive of Asia, South America,

North America and Europe. The authors used only papers which had symptomatic descriptions, bacteriological evidence, radiological evidence and descriptions in English which could possibly demonstrate a definitive diagnosis of Lemierre’s disease. This left 78 identifiable cases in the literature. Analysis of the 78 cases demonstrates that the oropharynx tends to be the primary infective site with 59/78 (77% – see Table 1) of all cases demonstrating symptoms prior to sepsis of an acute oropharyngeal infection. 16/78 (21%) of the remaining cases had primary

infective sites from other anatomical locations. 5/78 (6%) of these cases originated in the ears with symptoms of otitis externa occurring prior to 6-phosphogluconolactonase widespread sepsis. 3/78 (4%) cases originated in the soft tissues in the neck from originally superficial infections of the skin in both the anterior (2/3 cases) and the posterior (1/3 cases) triangles. 3/78 (4%) of cases had syndromic components but no obvious primary infective site. Table 1 Site of primary infection   Oropharynx Cranio-facial Extra cranio-facial Unknown Number of cases reported N = 59 N = 13 N = 3 N = 3   5 Ear 1 Spine   5 Dental 1 Uterus 3 Neck 1 Hand A particularly contentious aspect is whether or not the presence of thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein is essential in the diagnosis [77]. In our case, ultrasound and CT confirmed the presence of substantial internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombus. Our literature review demonstrated 54/78 (69% – see Table 2) of reported cases had thrombus in the IJV. In 2/78 (3%) of cases the IJV thrombus propagated cranially resulting in thrombophlebitis of the cranial veins.

Similarly to Figure 4, the plots present values averaged from sev

Similarly to Figure 4, the plots present values averaged from several measurements made on three different samples evaporated at each temperature. Surprisingly, in 10-nm-thick films in the whole range of temperatures 200 to 350 K, adhesive forces between Ag adatoms and Ge wetting layer dominate over cohesive forces in silver. Thus, the temperature-dependent mobility of Ag adatoms does not deteriorate significantly the surface smoothness. RMS roughness values from tapping-mode AFM measurements of 10-nm Ag films are in agreement with those obtained using

XRR. An example of XRR data obtained for the 10-nm-thick Ag film deposited on 1-nm Ge interlayer and a fitted model are shown in Figure 7. The average film thickness measured HDAC inhibitor using XRR is 10.9 ± 1.1 nm and differs up to 10% from the buy C188-9 values controlled with calibrated quartz weight installed in the vicinity of substrates in the vacuum chamber of the e-beam evaporator. In single-layer structures, e.g., plasmonic silver lenses [28, 29], such fabrication

inaccuracies should less deteriorate performance than in the case of metal-dielectric-layered flat lenses [30–32]. Figure 6 Ten-point and average height values measured on 3 × 3 μm 2 area on 10-nm Ag films. Thin films were deposited at temperatures in the range 200 to 350 K, and RMS values were measured using both AFM and XRR. Figure 7 XRR data and fitted model for 10-nm Ag and 1-nm Ge film on sapphire substrate. At the end, we investigated the interior structure of 10-nm-thick samples using one-dimensional XRD. The dependency between grain size and the substrate temperature is presented in Figure 8. Again, the samples evaporated at temperatures close to RT have the best uniformity. Figure 8 Grain sizes measured using one-dimensional XRD. Ag films of 10-nm thickness were deposited at temperatures in the range 200 to 350 K. Conclusions A new sublimation-pressure empirical equation valid in the range from 50 K to T t = 273.16 K of the triple point helps Urocanase select the optimum temperature in high-vacuum physical vapor deposition systems. We have demonstrated the possibility

to fabricate ultrasmooth metal nanolayers deposited onto epi-polished substrates at the lowest achievable pressure and at such a temperature that the whole dynamic range of both parameters is located on the gas side of the phase-boundary curve of water in a p-T diagram. The temperature range 230 to 350 K is established as the optimum for deposition of Ag nanolayers using e-beam evaporators. For the 10-nm Ag film on 1-nm Ge interlayer deposited at RT on sapphire substrate, a surface roughness with RMS = 0.22 nm has been achieved. For 30-nm-thick Ag films on sapphire substrate with 1-nm Ge wetting layer, RMS increases up to 0.49 nm. The ten-point height parameter given by extreme local surface features, which reflects scattering properties, has its minimum at 295 K.

g Eggleton et al 1997; Gathorne-Hardy et al 2002; Donovan et a

g. Eggleton et al. 1997; Gathorne-Hardy et al. 2002; Donovan et al. 2007). Apart from Macrotermes gilvus, Borneo lacks termite species that are adapted to drier, disturbed conditions EVP4593 (Jones et al. 2003; Hassall et al. 2006) and so species are lost as habitat disturbance increases, but are not replaced

by others. We found that the functional group composition of ant communities varied with habitat degradation, in association with variables linked to disturbance. Of these, slope was positively associated with forest quality because steep slopes are less intensively logged. Overall, ant functional groups showed variable associations with habitat disturbance. Species within the functional groups of Opportunists and Dominant Dolichoderinae thrive in hot and open areas (Andersen 2000) and were most abundant in oil palm plantation—a very open and thermally favourable habitat. Cryptic species were more abundant in logged forest than old growth forest. This may be due to increased dead wood levels in logged forest compared with old growth forest (e.g. 50 % greater in Amazon forests; Palace et al. 2007) providing additional microhabitats. In contrast, occurrence of Specialist Predators and Generalised Myrmicinae was correlated with variables associated with old growth forest,

with Generalised Myrmicinae being numerically dominant in old growth forest. Generalised Myrmicinae are often outcompeted by Dominant Dolichoderinae in open areas. Greater shade tolerance may therefore allow Generalised Myrmicinae to escape PRI-724 supplier competition Selleck mTOR inhibitor inside forests (Andersen 2000).

This pattern of loss of forest specialist canopy ants and replacement by open-habitat species when forests are logged has been observed by Widodo et al. (2004). Specialist Predators may decline in modified habitats because they feed on prey such as termites, which are lost with disturbance. The Specialist Predator genera, Pachychondyla and Leptogenys, MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit are believed to predate termites, and had highest occurrence rates in old growth forest and logged forest respectively. However, although some studies have considered foraging behaviour that includes termite predation (Maschwitz and Schönegge 1983; Wilson and Brown 1984; Johnson et al. 2003), there are few quantitative data for termite predation by ants in forest systems. Termite feeding group composition was strongly correlated with variation in habitat disturbance, with all groups being most abundant in old growth forest. The RDA analysis confirmed that factors associated with habitat disturbance were significantly associated with variation in feeding group structure. Degree of exoskeleton sclerotisation and therefore potential resistance to desiccation, decreases across feeding groups from groups I to IV, i.e. from dead wood to soil feeders (Eggleton et al. 1997). Humus feeders in Group III showed significant decreases in occurrence in disturbed habitats.

J Phys Chem Solids 2011, 72:620–625

J Phys Chem Solids 2011, 72:620–625.Stem Cells inhibitor CrossRef 10. Weismiller MR, Malchi JY, Yetter RA, Foley TJ: Dependence of flame propagation

on pressure and pressurizing gas for an Al/CuO nanoscale thermite. Proc Combust Inst 2009, 32:1895–1903.CrossRef 11. Zhang K, Rossi C, Petrantoni M, Mauran N: A nano initiator realized by integrating Al/CuO-based nanoenergetic materials with a Au/Pt/Cr microheater. J Microelectromech Syst 2008, 17:832–836.CrossRef 12. Zhou X, Shen R, Ye Y, Zhu P, Hu Y, Sepantronium Wu L: Influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films additives on exploding foil initiator. J Appl Phys 2011, 110:094505.CrossRef 13. Cheng JL, Hng HH, Lee YW, Du SW, Thadhani NN: Kinetic study of thermal- and impact-initiated reactions in Al-Fe 2 O 3 nanothermite. Combust Flame 2010, 157:2241–2249.CrossRef 14. Park C-D, Mileham M, van de Burgt LJ, Muller EA, Stiegman AE: The effects of stoichiometry and sample density on combustion dynamics and initiation energy of Al/Fe2O3 metastable interstitial composites. J Phys Chem C 2010, 114:2814–2820.CrossRef 15. Plantier KB, Pantoya ML, Gash AE: Combustion wave speeds of nanocomposite Al/Fe 2 O 3 : the effects of Fe2O3 particle synthesis technique. Combust Flame 2005, 140:299–309.CrossRef 16. Wang L, Luss D, Martirosyan KS: The behavior of nanothermite reaction based on Bi 2 O 3 /Al. J Appl Linsitinib cell line Phys 2011, 110:074311.CrossRef 17. Son SF, Asay BW, Foley TJ, Yetter RA, Wu MH, Risha GA: Combustion

of nanoscale Al/MoO 3 thermite in microchannels. J Propul Power 2007, 23:715–721.CrossRef 18. Sun J, Pantoya ML, Simon SL: Dependence of size and size distribution on reactivity of aluminum nanoparticles in reactions with oxygen and MoO 3 . Thermochimica Acta 2006, 444:117–127.CrossRef 19. Gibot P, Comet M, Vidal L, Moitrier F, Lacroix F,

Suma Y, Schnell F, Spitzer D: Synthesis of WO 3 nanoparticles for superthermites Edoxaban by the template method from silica spheres. Solid State Sciences 2011, 13:908–914.CrossRef 20. Sullivan KT, Chiou W-A, Fiore R, Zachariah MR: In situ microscopy of rapidly heated nano-Al and nano-Al/WO 3 thermites. Appl Phys Lett 2010, 97:133104.CrossRef 21. Apperson SJ, Bezmelnitsyn AV, Thiruvengadathan R, Gangopadhyay K, Gangopadhyay S, Balas WA, Anderson PE, Nicolich SM: Characterization of nanothermite material for solid-fuel microthruster applications. J Propul Power 2009, 25:1086–1091.CrossRef 22. Howell JA, Mohney SE, Muhlstein CL: Developing Ni-Al and Ru-Al intermetallic films for use in microelectromechanical systems. J Vac Sci Technol B 2011, 29:042002.CrossRef 23. Martirosyan KS: Nanoenergetic gas-generators: principles and applications. J Mater Chem 2011, 21:9400–9405.CrossRef 24. Dreizin EL: Metal-based reactive nanomaterials. Progr Energ Combust Sci 2009, 35:141–167.CrossRef 25. Rossi C, Zhang K, Esteve D, Alphonse P, Tailhades P, Vahlas C: Nano energetic materials for MEMS: a review. J Microelectromech Syst 2007, 16:919–931.