001) In contrast, SOD activity was significantly increased in B,

001). In contrast, SOD activity was significantly increased in B, B/N and B/G Groups, and SOD activity in B/N and B/G Groups

was less than in the B Group (all P < 0.001).

These results suggest that postconditioning of butorphanol tartrate can provide a potent cardioprotective effect against myocardial ischaemic and reperfusion injury. Both the kappa-OR and the K-ATP channels were involved in this effect.”
“Converging evidence from animal and human studies suggest that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep selleck compound modulates emotional processing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of selective REM sleep deprivation (REM-D) on emotional responses to threatening visual stimuli and their brain correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: selective REM-D, by awakening them at each REM sleep onset, or non-rapid eye movement sleep interruptions (NREM-I) as control for potential non-specific effects of awakenings and lack of sleep. In a within-subject design, a

visual emotional reactivity task was performed in the scanner before and 24 h after sleep manipulation. 5-Fluoracil cost Behaviorally, emotional reactivity was enhanced relative to baseline (BL) in the REM deprived group only. In terms of fMRI signal, there was, as expected, an overall decrease in activity in the NREM-I group when subjects performed the task the second time, particularly in regions involved in emotional processing, such as occipital and temporal areas, as well as in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, involved in top-down emotion regulation. In contrast, activity in these areas remained the same level or even increased in the REM-D group, compared to their BL level. Taken together, these results suggest that lack of REM sleep in humans is associated with enhanced emotional reactivity, both at behavioral and neural levels, and thus highlight the specific role of REM sleep in regulating the neural substrates for emotional responsiveness.”
“The FIVCAT.NET database in Catalonia is the only official obligatory registry of human assisted reproduction practitioners in Spain. The present

study assessed the effectiveness and outcomes of assisted reproduction over the period 2001-2005 relative to other established worldwide registries. The data analysed were derived from all centres selleck products conducting assisted reproduction in Catalonia, and included users of the services (resident and non-resident); all cycles performed; descriptive characteristics of the assisted reproduction procedures; and sociodemographic characteristics of the women. Effectiveness of assisted reproduction was measured by standard indicators such its rates of pregnancy and rates of live births per pregnancy. The results indicated that the preferred number of embryos for transfer changed from three to two over this period. Pregnancies per transfer improved from 33.2% to 37.1%, (from 36.9% to 40.

“OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of major congenital anoma

“OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of major congenital anomalies after exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study based on national population-based registers (years 1996-2006) of births, congenital anomalies, and terminations of pregnancy because of severe fetal anomalies (maintained by National Institute for Health and Welfare, source offspring population n=635,583) and drug reimbursements (Social Insurance Institution) linked by a personal identification number. Offspring exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during the first trimester (n=6,976) were compared with unexposed referent offspring.


Overall major congenital anomalies were not more common in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-exposed offspring compared with unexposed referent offspring EGFR inhibitor (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.22). Fluoxetine was associated with an increased risk of isolated ventricular

septal defects (adjusted OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.21) and paroxetine was associated with an increased risk of right ventricular outflow tract defects (adjusted OR 4.68, 95% CI 1.48-14.74). Citalopram use was associated with neural tube defects (adjusted OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.20-5.07). HDAC inhibitor Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders were 10-times more common in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-exposed offspring than in unexposed referent offspring.

CONCLUSION: Fluoxetine use is associated with an increased risk of isolated ventricular septal defects and paroxetine is associated with right ventricular outflow tract defects. click here The absolute risk for these specific cardiac anomalies is small but should guide clinicians not to consider fluoxetine or paroxetine the first option when prescribing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to women planning pregnancy. Special attention should be given to alcohol use in pregnant women using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (Obstet Gynecol 2011;118:111-20) DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318220edcc”
“Objective To investigate the influence

of nictitating membrane (third eyelid) removal on selected proteins in feline tears. Animal studied Domestic short-haired cats (717 months; 2.65.2 kg) were used. Procedures Eye-flush tears were collected periodically for up to 18 weeks from both eyes of animals with nictitating membranes removed, but nictitating gland left intact, (n = 4) or with nictitating membranes intact (n = 4). Tear comparisons were based on total protein content (TPC) using micro bicinchoninic acid assay, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 measurements using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and tear gelatinase activity using gelatin zymography. Expression of MMP-2 and -9 in nictitating membranes removed at baseline (week 0) and eyes collected at 18 weeks were also investigated in histological sections using immunoperoxidase for visualization.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:443-7 Published by Elsevier Inc

J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:443-7 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.”

Attributed to congenital malformation of lymphatic duets, diffuse retroperitoneal cystic has it distribution that often corresponds to the location. of primitive fetal LY333531 lymphatic sacs. Three recognized types are capillary, cavernous gild cystic: Multisystem involvement may occur involving spleen, liver, bone, pancreas, soft tissue, limbs and brain.


A 55-year-old, healthy male with multiply liver lesions rind retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, presented

for retroperitoneal tine needle aspiration, producing 20 ml. of milky liquid. Immediate cytologic evaluation showed a heterologous population of mature lymphocytes

with chylomicrons. Flow cytometry revealed a polyclonal population of mature lymphocytes. Chemical analysis demonstrated a normal serum cholesterol level and an elevated triglyceride level. Serum markers were noncontributory. We review the differential diagnostic considerations leading to obstruction or retention of lymphatic fluids (malignancy, surgical, GSK1838705A research buy infective and traumatic), with an emphasis on the importance of on-site cytologic evaluation, correlation with cilnical history and review of the etiologic considerations.


The constellation of clinical, radiologic; cytologic raid laboratory fadings presented in this pallor tree diagnostic of diffuse retroperitoneal cystic abdominal lymphangiomatosis.

To our knowledge, this entity hits not been reported before in the fills needle aspiration literature. To prevent further disruption of lymphatic drainage, no further surgical sampling Is planned. (Acta Cytol 2009;53:191-194)”
“Recent experimental and theoretical studies have shown an essential role of sulfur segregation-induced amorphization of crystalline nickel leading to its embrittlement at a critical sulfur concentration of similar to 14%, but the atomistic mechanism of the amorphization remains unexplained. Here, molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the large steric size of sulfur impurity causes strong sulfur-sulfur interaction mediated ATM Kinase Inhibitor by lattice distortion up to the next nearest-neighbor lattice sites and that amorphization occurs at the percolation threshold of the sulfur-sulfur network with the next nearest-neighbor connectivity. Furthermore, the generality of the amorphization mechanism due to the percolation of an impurity network is confirmed for a model binary material. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3636368]“
“Purpose: To assess the value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in determining the site of origin of newly diagnosed uterine cancer (corpus vs cervix) when clinical and/or histologic evaluation is indeterminate.


drug seeking was reinstated by ip cocaine, E


drug seeking was reinstated by ip cocaine, EFS, or response-contingent presentation of drug-associated cues in vehicle-pretreated rats following extinction of iv cocaine self-adminisration. Oral administration of either 3.0 or 10.0 mg/kg l-THP 1 h prior to reinstatement testing significantly attenuated reinstatement by each of the stimuli. Food-reinforced responding and baseline post-extinction responding were significantly attenuated at the 10.0, but not the 3.0 mg/kg, l-THP dose, indicating that the effects of 3 mg/kg l-THP on reinstatement were check details likely independent of non-specific motor impairment. These findings further suggest that l-THP may have utility for the treatment of cocaine addiction. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been found responsible for the induction of proliferation and differentiation in granulosa cells. We constructed four short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmids targeting the mouse VEGFA gene, and examined their effect on VEGF

expression in mouse granulosa cells (MGC) in vitro. Four different shRNA oligonucleotides targeting the coding sequence of mouse VEGFA mRNA and one negative control (shNC) were designed and cloned into a pGPU6/GFP/Neo siRNA expression vector, and transiently transfected into MGC. At 48 h post-transfection, total RNA was extracted from the cells and subjected to qRT-PCR analysis. The most effective interference vector, shVEGF1487 was chosen for lentiviral construction. The recombinant Fedratinib ic50 plasmid was then transfected into 293FT cells via Lipofectamine (TM) 2000-mediated gene transfer, for the production of lentivirus, and then concentrated via ultracentrifugation.

This lentiviral vector was then used for the transduction of MGC. VEGFA gene expression, apoptosis genes and VEGFA receptor genes were detected by qRT-PCR, the VEGFA protein level in culture selleck chemicals llc media by ELISA assay and protein levels in MGC by Western blot analysis. The four VEGFA expression plasmids were successfully constructed and the most effective interference vector, shVEGF1487, was chosen for lentiviral production and MGC transduction. There was significant knockdown of the VEGFA gene, receptor genes and apoptosis genes for all the shVEGF constructs, compared with the shNC and Mock controls. The lentiviral vector also gave significant knockdown of the VEGFA gene. Protein levels were lower for most of the shVEGFs based on Western blot analysis with exception of VEGF1359; in this case, it was higher than shNC but lower than for the Mock group. Lentivector-transduced MGC also gave lower levels of protein. We conclude that shVEGF expression plasmids and lentivector carrying RNAi are promising tools for the inhibition of VEGF, the corresponding receptor genes, and apoptosis gene expression in MGC.

In conclusion, AT reversed damaging L-NAME neurological effects a

In conclusion, AT reversed damaging L-NAME neurological effects and could be considered as a possible protective agent in neurological diseases.”
“International students all over the world meet a lot of stressful situations

due to different academic demands, cultural context, language problems and other adaptation difficulties. There is little evidence to explain what stress coping strategies are used by international students to cope with stressful situations and how they are connected to psychological adaptation. So the purpose of this study was to assess associations between psychological adaptation and stress coping strategies AL3818 ic50 in international and domestic students. The study recruited 356 students: 258 host and 98 international students. Stress coping strategies were measured by Coping Orientation of Problem Experience questionnaire. Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was used to measure depressive Selleck GW786034 symptoms. Stress related health complaints were measured using a scale devised by the authors of this study. The study ascertained that in stressful situations international students used different stress coping strategies when compared to domestic students. Moreover, stress coping strategies used by international and domestic students were differently connected to health outcomes. The study pointed out that by researchers and counselors’

special attention should be given to international students.”
“Essential hypertension is characterized by a left ventricular dysfunction. However, the majority of the studies

performed so far investigated patients under drug treatment and/or with concomitant diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome or coronary heart disease, which per se may affect diastolic function independently on the blood pressure elevation. Vactosertib mw The present study aimed at investigating left ventricular diastolic function in untreated, uncomplicated and newly diagnosed hypertensive patients by employing both routine echo-Doppler and pulse tissue-Doppler technique. Data were collected in 86 middle-aged essential hypertensive patients and in 18 sex-matched normotensive controls. At the echo-Doppler approach, about half of the hypertensive patients displayed a diastolic dysfunction (n = 44, E/A: 0.79 +/- 0.02). They showed body mass index values slightly greater than hypertensive patients without diastolic dysfunction but superimposable blood pressure values and metabolic variables. When assessed via the pulse tissue-Doppler approach, patients with a reduced E/A displayed an Em/Am ratio significantly lower than patients without diastolic dysfunction and control subjects. This was the case when the data were related to the lateral and septal mitral annulus or averaged together.

9%) did not The medical records of both cohorts were compared re

9%) did not. The medical records of both cohorts were compared regarding patient demographics (age, sex, body mass index, preoperative creatinine level), operative characteristics (estimated blood

loss, length of stay, treatment efficacy), and complication rates (overall, AZD8055 thoracic, hemorrhage necessitating transfusion).

Results: Patient demographics did not differ between the tubeless and nephrostomy tube groups. Estimated blood loss was significantly less in the tubeless patients (67mL vs 123 mL; P = 0.019). The tubeless group had a shorter mean length of stay than the nephrostomy tube group (2.5 vs 3.4 days, P < 0.01). Treatment success was comparable between the two groups (tubeless 81.5% vs nephrostomy tube 77.8%; P = 0.553). Overall complication (P = 0.765) and blood transfusion (P = 0.064) rates were equivalent. Chest complications

were higher in the tubeless group (22.2%) compared with the nephrostomy tube patients (10.9%) (P = 0.024). Nevertheless, chest complications necessitating intervention were not different (P = 0.152).

Conclusions: Tubeless supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy was associated with less intraoperative blood loss and a shorter hospital stay. Although the tubeless group experienced more chest complications overall, the need for intervention was no different among the two cohorts. Tubeless supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy appears safe.”
“Purpose To determine which characteristics of blastocyst embryo morphology may predict clinical pregnancy and live birth rates.

A retrospective analysis of data from 3,151 cycles of fresh, non-donor eSET cycles from 2008 to 2009 was performed. Data were obtained from the Society for JQ-EZ-05 price Assisted Reproductive

Technologies (SART) underwent. All eSET were performed at the blastocyst stage. Main outcome measures were clinical pregnancy and live birth rates.

Trophectoderm morphology, embryo stage and patient age are highly significant independent predictors selleck chemicals of both clinical pregnancy and live birth. Neither inner cell mass morphology nor embryo grade predicted clinical pregnancy or live birth.

Better trophectoderm morphology, younger patient age and further blastocyst progression all result in higher clinical pregnancy and live birth rates. Therefore, trophectoderm morphology and blastocyst stage should preferentially be used as the most important factors in choosing the best embryo for transfer.”
“Background: The current situation in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) presents a new challenge for attempts to measure the therapeutic results, as the CML patients can experience multiple leukaemia-free periods during the course of their treatment. Traditional measures of treatment efficacy such as leukaemia-free survival and cumulative incidence are unable to cope with multiple events in time, e. g. disease remissions or progressions, and as such are inappropriate for the efficacy assessment of the recent CML treatment.

A retrospective cohort study concerning 132 stillbirths from 124

A retrospective cohort study concerning 132 stillbirths from 124 pregnancies occurred in the Mother-Infant Department of the University Hospital Selleckchem Autophagy inhibitor of Modena, Italy, from January 2000 to December 2004. Collected data were reviewed and classified according to the Gardosi ReCoDe system.

A reasonable cause of fetal death was identified in 99/124 pregnancies (79.84%). No associated relevant factors were disclosed in 25 fetuses (20.16%) classified as unexplained stillbirths. A succeeding scrupulous analysis of the placenta and an accurate clinical record review were useful to detect other conditions in 82 cases, including 5

cases of unexplained stillbirth. The major relevant conditions associated to stillbirths were feto-placental infection especially in the early fetal gestation age, under the 24th week of gestation, and placental insufficiency occurred both in early and late gestation age fetuses and mainly associated with a IUGR

(< 10th customized percentile). The main frequent secondary conditions were represented by placental anomalies including cluster of avascular villi with stromal fibrosis associated to thrombosis in minor and/or major vessel(s). Through the further analysis of the placenta, we were able to reduce the unexplained stillbirth rate from 20.16 to 15%.

Accurate fetal buy NU7441 autopsy and placental examination related to meticulous clinical collecting data are requisites in the valuation of stillbirth and could play an important role in reduction of unexplained stillbirth rate.”
“A systematic protocol to fabricate self-assembly deoxycholate-chitosan nanospheres (DC-CsNS) by gamma-ray pre-irradiation and chemical modification was studied. Hydrophobic deoxycholic acid moieties were chemically conjugated to pre-irradiated chitosan. The influences of chitosan physical forms (i.e., colloid and flake) during irradiation, radiation doses, Selleck DZNeP and the reaction system (heterogeneous or homogeneous) on the chemical modification and the particle shape and size were investigated. Pre-irradiation of chitosan

in colloidal form produced smaller DC-CsNS particle size than that of flake form. In the heterogeneous reaction, the pre-irradiated dose influenced the DC-CsNS particle size, whereas in the homogeneous reaction all pre-irradiation doses gave an identical average size range of 30-50 nm. By pre-irradiation (10 kGy) of chitosan in colloidal form before heterogeneous chemical conjugation, it is possible to obtain DC-CsNS with an average size of 46 nm. DC-CsNS of about 50 nm in size could also be synthesized using homogeneous chemical conjugation onto non-irradiated chitosan with the addition of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 3309-3320, 2012″
“In the study, we introduced the local mean free path of phonons with boundary effects.

284, P > 0 05) Interestingly,

284, P > 0.05). Interestingly, Selleckchem 5-Fluoracil the DD homozygous genotype scored notably higher in the healthy control group (chi(2) = 7.568, P < 0.05), while the ID heterozygote was observed to be significantly associated with SLE (chi(2) = 11.143, P < 0.05). In conclusion, with respect to the Malaysian population, the DD genotype might play a protective role in the development of SLE while in contrast, those who carry the ID genotype might be at potential risk for onset of this disease.”
“Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a polyphenol-rich

fruit. In the past decade, studies in human and murine models on the antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate constituents have been published, focusing mainly on treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, bacterial infections, and antibiotic resistance. In animals, the esterase paraoxonase1 (PON1) prevents LDL oxidation in vitro. Decreased levels of PON1 are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In this work, streptozotocin-induced diabetic

mice fed with a high-fat diet were supplemented daily with pomegranate juice (PJ) in order to study the effect of PJ on PON1 gene expression and activity. The supplementation with PJ significantly induced PON1 gene expression and activity compared to mice that did not receive the PJ, although not to the levels reached by mice fed a non-high fat diet. Interestingly, animals supplemented with PJ showed the lowest body weight. In addition, the PJ significantly reduced AZD9291 in vitro blood glucose but not triacylglycerols and cholesterol MK-1775 concentration levels, demonstrating that PJ has a hypoglycemic effect. Thus, the daily PJ supplementation in our unique model indicates that including this fruit juice in the diet has potential in the management of diabetes as well as cardioprotective

benefits that deserve further clinical investigation. (C) 20PJ Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of erectile dysfunction (ED); however, the acute effects of ethanol (EtOH) on penile tissue are not fully understood. We sought to investigate the effects of EtOH on corporal tissue tonicity, as well as the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)) and potassium channel activity of corporal smooth muscle. Strips of corpus cavernosum (CC) from rabbits were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension studies. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) was applied to strips precontracted with 10 mu mol L-1 phenylephrine as a control. EtOH was then added to the organ bath and incubated before EFS. The [Ca2+](i) levels were monitored by the ratio of fura-2 fluorescence intensities using the fura-2 loading method. Single-channel and whole-cell currents were recorded by the conventional patch-clamp technique in short-term cultured smooth muscle cells from human CC tissue.

Information on the structure

of the hybrid systems was re

Information on the structure

of the hybrid systems was received from differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis, atomic force microscopy, and fractographic studies. The flexural and fracture mechanical properties of the EP/BOX hybrids were determined and compared to those of the reference EPs. The thermal degradation and fire resistance of the hybrids were also studied. It was found that the polymerized BOX was built in the network in from of nanoscale inclusions and acted as antiplasticizer. Incorporation of BOX enhanced the flexural modulus and strength and reduced the glass transition temperature of the parent EP. The fracture toughness and energy were practically not improved by hybridization with BOX. The charring and flame resistance were improved with Poziotinib manufacturer increasing amount of BOX in the EP/BOX hybrids. The relative improvement in the latter was most prominent for the bifunctional EP/BOX systems. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Purpose: Informed consent forms an important part of treatment, especially

in the case of elective treatment. The aim of this Survey was to establish how much patients can recall of the information given during an informed consent interview before orthognathic surgery. During the consultation, attention was given to all aspects of the treatment. However, because of JQ1 research buy “”insurance-related factors,”" the need for treatment because of functional reasons was stressed over esthetics. The recall of information

given during an informed consent interview before orthognathic surgery was measured using a questionnaire.

Materials and Methods: Patients with a mandibular deficiency with a low mandibular A-1210477 datasheet plane angle were questioned after an informed consent interview regarding surgical orthodontic treatment.

Results: Esthetics were more frequently and functional problems were less frequently recalled as the reason for operation than was expected. The risk of a change in the sensation of the lower lip by surgery was frequently recalled as a reason to refrain from the operation. The overall recall rate of the possible risks and complications of orthodontic surgery was 40%.

Conclusions: No reports were found of comparable research on the preoperative recall after consultation before surgical orthodontic surgery. The aspects of communication that can improve recall must be clarified. A recall rate of 100% seems a utopia, although an arbitrary line is needed to determine the quality of an informed consent interview. (C) 2009 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:1021-1025, 2009″
“Bortezomib is a new chemotherapeutic agent approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory and newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. One of the major side effects of bortezomib is a peripheral length-dependent sensory axonal neuropathy and, less frequently, a small fiber neuropathy.

Compounds 1-4 exhibited good antibacterial and radical scavenging

Compounds 1-4 exhibited good antibacterial and radical scavenging activity with the glycosides 3 and 4 showing better antioxidant activity than the aglycones 1 and 2 and myricetin-3-O-alpha-arabinofuranoside (4) showing the best antimicrobial activity followed by the aglycones 1 and 2. Betmidin (4) with an arabinose LY3023414 inhibitor moiety at the 3-O-position showed the best antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, followed by the prenylated dihydroflavonol (2), whilst the prenylated linear flavonol (1) showed limited

activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The arabinofuranoside (4) followed by the rhamnopyranoside (3) showed the best antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. The biological activities justify the ethnomedicinal uses of the plant in the management of diseases associated with Gram-positive bacteria, such as being used to treat injuries and wounds. (C) 2013 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Estrogen and progestins have been used by millions of women as effective combined contraceptives. The safety of hormonal contraceptives has been documented by years of follow-up and serious adverse events that may be related SB202190 order to their use are rare in the young population exposed to these agents. The balance between the benefits and the

BAY 63-2521 cost risks of contraceptive steroids is generally positive in particular when comparing to the risks of pregnancy and especially in women with risk factors. The metabolic changes induced by the synthetic steroids used in contraception, such as lipoprotein changes, insulin response to glucose, and coagulation factors have been considered as potential markers of cardiovascular and venous risk. Observations of these effects have led to modifications of the composition of hormonal contraceptive in order to minimize these changes and hence potentially decrease the risks. The synthetic estrogen Ethinyl-Estradiol (EE) exerts a stronger effect that natural

estradiol (E2) on hepatic metabolism including estrogen-dependent markers such as liver proteins. This stronger hepatic impact of EE has been related to its 17 alpha-ethinyl group which prevents the inactivation of the molecule and results in a more pronounced hepatic effect of EE as compared to estradiol. Due to its strong activity, administering EE via a non-oral route does not prevent its impact on liver proteins. In order to circumvent the metabolic changes induced by EE, newer products using more natural compounds such as estradiol (E2) and estradiol valerate (E2V) have been introduced. The synthetic progestins used for contraception are structurally related either to testosterone (T) (estranes and gonanes) or to progesterone (pregnanes and 19-norpregnanes).